Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-09-27T12:26:00+05:00 Dr. Rizwana Umair Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review (PLHR) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. PLHR is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes <strong>Quarterly</strong>. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> Assessing the difference Concerning Junk Food Consumption and Menstrual Health among Female Student-Athletes verses Student Non-Athletes in the University Setting 2023-07-12T16:02:42+05:00 Malka Nawaz Asif Ali Anam Nawaz <p>The purpose of the study was to find out difference concerning junk food consumption and menstrual health among female student’s athlete verses non-athlete’s in the university setting in Lahore, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 340 girls, 170 athletes and 170 non-athletes ages between 18-25 years. Data collection Tools utilized for this study included demographic information, menstrual health and junk food consumption. The Statistical analysis was carried out by using independent T-Test. Results revealed that irregular menstrual cycle and pre-menstrual symptoms were significantly higher in non-athletes as compared to athletes and junk food consumption like carbonated drinks and refined grains were significantly higher in athletes than non-athletes. This study contributes to the understanding of menstruation and junk food consumption in a university setting. These findings may help professionals to formulate appropriate intervention strategies to counter menstrual problems and eating habits among female athletes and non-athletes in universities.</p> 2023-07-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effects of L1 Transfer on L2: A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English Coordinating Conjunctions /and/ and /aur/ 2023-07-12T16:09:01+05:00 Tahir Qayyum Shahida Khalique Sobia Ahmed <p>This study compares and contrasts the usage of /and/ and /aur/ within the framework of the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH). Data on Urdu conjunctions appearing in various structures were obtained from an unpublished research paper on Conversation Analysis, while data on English conjunctions were obtained from several past studies. Hundred Graduating students (twenty five from each institution) from five different Higher Education Institutions of Kotli AJ&amp;K (Pakistan) were provided with audio conversations in Urdu and asked to translate them into English (the target language). The written translations of the data were analyzed inorder to check the influence of L1 (Urdu) on the use of coordinating conjunctions of L2 (English). The findings divulge that the conjunction /aur/ poses hitches for Urdu speakers when translating L1 structures into L2, specifically in how the conjunction /aur/ is used in normal conversation. The study employs three possibilities of emergence in the comparative study of English and Urdu: no difference between the L1 coordinating conjunction /aur/ and its L2 counterpart "and," no similarity between the two, and a structure present in L1 but absent in L2. This study may assist English teachers and learners who have to deal with transfer of Urdu L1 structures to L2 (English).</p> 2023-07-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review Relationship between Physical Activity and Facebook Addiction among Athletes and Non-athletes of University Level Early Adults 2023-07-13T13:57:31+05:00 Muaaz Zafar Iqbal Asif Ali <p>This study compared athletes and non-athletes to evaluate the association between physical exercise and Facebook addiction among university-level participants. A total of 150 athletes and 150 non-athletes, encompassing a diverse gender distribution (Approximately 25-30% female and 70% male participants), were incorporated into the process of gathering data. Social media usage and physical activity have unique benefits for these populations because of disparities in academic performance, psychological well-being, and social relationships. Athletes engaged in significantly more physical activity than non-athletes, demonstrating significant variations in salience factor and conflict factors. They also displayed significantly different conflict factors compared to non-athletes, indicating a significant difference in physical activity level. These findings suggest that among university-level young adults, both athletes and non-athletes exhibit comparable intensity of fitness regimen and Facebook addiction. The undertaken investigation contributes broaden our perspective on the intricate linkage of physical activity, social media usage among university students, highlighting the importance of further research in this domain.</p> 2023-07-13T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Translation Quality Assessment: A Case Study of the Novel Peer-E- Kamil 2023-07-16T12:21:27+05:00 Sheeza Kazmi Farah Kashif Saba Rasheed <p>This research paper aims to evaluate the translation quality of the novel "Peer-e-Kamil" from Urdu to English and seeks to practically apply House's model of Translation Quality Assessment. House's model, proposed in 1997 by Juliane House, facilitates a comparative analysis of the source text (ST) and target text (TT). During this comparison process, errors may emerge and are categorized based on genre and the situational dimensions of register and genre. These errors, referred to as covertly erroneous errors, relate to dimensional discrepancies. Additionally, there are overtly erroneous errors involving denotative mismatches or errors in the target system. Consequently, the translation can be classified as either overt or covert. This qualitative comparative study contributes to the assessment of translation quality by identifying mismatches and errors. The findings suggest that the translator has predominantly opted for a covert translation approach rather than an overt one.</p> 2023-07-15T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aquatic Exercises as Medicine for Older Individuals with Dementia: Evidence by an Analytical Approach 2023-07-16T19:53:44+05:00 Muhammad Yousaf Asif Ali Fariq Fariq <p>The intent of this systematic review was to decide whether or not there is a relationship between aquatic exercise and dementia in older people. This review included nine experimental studies, one longitudinal study, and one qualitative study. The majority of the interventions focused on water-based exercises designed specifically for dementia patients. The results showed that aquatic exercise interventions in Dementia sufferers had a variety of beneficial effects. Improvements in cognitive function, mental health, and behavioral and psychological dementia symptoms were all included in these effects. These results are also in favor of including aquatic exercises in dementia care programs as aquatic exercise interventions have the potential to enhance a number of dementia-related results, including cognitive performance, psychological happiness and ultimate quality of life. To better understand and implement aquatic exercise interventions for people with dementia, research gaps have been identified, including the need for larger-scale studies and comparative investigations.</p> 2023-07-16T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Unveiling the Modernist Tapestry: Tradition and Modernity in 'A Wondering Falcon' by Jamil Ahmed 2023-07-18T15:22:52+05:00 Muhammad Nasir Iesar Ahmad <p>The research article discusses the tension between tradition and modernity as a significant theme in literature, particularly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The novel ‘A Wondering Falcon’ by Jamil Ahmed is mentioned as an example of a work that explores this theme. The research aims to analyze the portrayal of tradition and modernity in the novel through a close reading and analysis of its characters, symbolism, narrative style, and social commentary. The research assumes that the novel presents a significant portrayal of the tension between tradition and modernity and that a modernist lens is useful for understanding this theme. The implications of the research are that it highlights the significance of ‘A Wondering Falcon’ within modernist literature and suggests that its exploration of tradition and modernity has broader implications for understanding societal changes and cultural shifts. By analyzing the tension between tradition and modernity in 'A Wondering Falcon,' readers can gain a deeper understanding of the complexities and challenges faced by individuals and communities in navigating the forces of tradition and modernity.</p> 2023-07-18T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Examining Servant Leadership in Head Teachers in Government High Schools of South Punjab 2023-07-20T15:06:23+05:00 Saba Hanif Shazia Afzal Shamim Ullah <p>This research study focuses on examining the concept of servant leadership among teachers in government high schools located in South Punjab, a region in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to explore the extent to which servant leadership behaviors are practiced by teachers and their impact on the overall learning environment and student outcomes. By investigating the specific behaviors and characteristics associated with servant leadership in this context, the research aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on educational leadership. The research methodology employed a quantitative approach. A survey questionnaire was administered to a sample of teachers working in government high schools in South Punjab, assessing their self-perceived servant leadership behaviors and attitudes. Preliminary findings indicate that servant leadership is indeed present among teachers in government high schools of South Punjab, although the degree of practice varies among individuals. Teachers who adopt servant leadership behaviors prioritize the needs and well-being of their students, actively engaging in creating a supportive and nurturing learning environment. By displaying empathy, active listening, and providing guidance and mentorship, servant leaders contribute to student engagement, motivation, and academic success.</p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Differentiating the Physical Activities Performance between Performers and Non-Performers Girls’ College Students of Physical Education 2023-07-22T12:05:21+05:00 Mehwish Manzoor M. Ismail Wasan Muhammad Rizwan Nawaz <p>The regular performance of physical activities has lots of benefits in our lives. Exercise and physical activity during adolescence may positively effect on the physical fitness levels and body composition. If a person engages him/herself in physical activities will remain physically fit and can maintain healthy body composition which is the key of life. This research is based on male colleges of northern Punjab. There is total 176 girls’ colleges in the northern Punjab from which 29 colleges were selected and 290 performer and non-performer were collected. Four physical activities were compared like flexibility, general endurance, long jump and speed. This research revealed that the performer has more stamina as compare to non-performer. This study also found that the flexibility, general endurance, long jump and speed was good in performers as compare to non-performers. Total number of performers were 290 and non-performers were 290.The mean flexibility of performers is 12.03 with standard deviation 9.995 and non-performers is 7.54 with standard deviation 10.428. This study also found that the flexibility, general endurance, long jump and speed was good in performers as compare to non-performers.</p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Desire for Power and Achievement Motivation: The Covariance in Competitive Examinations’ Aspirants and Bureaucrats of Pakistan 2023-07-22T12:07:56+05:00 Naima Abdul Wahid Sara Mehmood Durrani Saima Ambreen <p>The goal of the study was to find covariance between desire for power and achievement motivation in competitive examinations’ aspirants and bureaucrats. Civil services of Pakistan, either central or provincial are considered elite services of Pakistan. Individuals who complete higher education, make their way to bureaucracy through competitive examinations. During this process, the role of motivation factors that affect individuals’ drive for success cannot be denied. To know this, purposive sampling technique was used by distributing questionnaires using survey method to 51 male and female participants. Desire for power was measured by “Index of Personal Reaction Scale” and achievement motivation by “Achievement Motivation Scale.” Results indicated that among the four subscales of IPR, need for influence positively correlated to hope of success and resistance to subordination positively correlated to fear of failure of R-AMS. Furthermore, need for influence predicted 19% variance in hope of success, while resistance to subordination predicted 9% variance in fear of failure.</p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Role of Email Management, Online Research, Social Media Management and Online Collaboration in Learners’ Skills Development in Technical and Vocational Institutes 2023-07-23T15:05:49+05:00 Jam Muhammad Zafar Fareeha Zahid Khizra Zahid <p>TAVET programs are run by the government, which will be opportunity for development and preparing workforce expected for the financial inspire of this country. Objectives of this study were to analyze the role of email management, online research, social media management and online collaboration on learners’ skills development and to recommend appropriate for skill development in technical and vocational institutes. Researcher carried out study on “Role of Email Management, Online Research, Social Media Management and Online Collaboration in Learners’ Skills Development in TAVET”. Use and effectiveness of ICT is also equally important in TAVET. Study was survey type and descriptive in nature. Quantitative technique was adopted. Population of the study comprised all instructors and students of TAVET in Sadiqabad. After carrying out research all the teachers and students have agreed on the use and need of ICT facilities in TAVET. Study recommended that use of ICT may be increased in TAVET and teaching staff may be trained and ICT facilities may be provided in TAVET.</p> 2023-07-23T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Self-Efficacy as Mediator between Attachment Styles and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents 2023-07-25T15:46:47+05:00 Sajid Iqbal Alyana Rabia Saeed <p>The purpose of this research was to examine the interplay between adolescent attachment styles, Self-Efficacy, and happiness. Securely connected people, as proposed by Attachment Theory, like their relationships and are easy to talk to. Strong attachments to both parents and peers help adolescents through the challenging Transitional period of adolescence by satisfying their psychological needs and boosting their levels of selfefficacy, both of which contribute to their overall sense of well-being and sense of accomplishment. The total sample size for this study was five hundred secondary school students. Teenagers and young adults were scouted from numerous schools. The Independent Sample T-test, in addition to a number of descriptive statistics and a mediation analysis, were utilized in this investigation. We found that Attachment Styles were a significant factor in determining the likelihood of favorable outcomes like Life Satisfaction. We strongly recommend awareness programs for parents to guide about secure attachments and transitional phase of Adolescence.</p> 2023-07-25T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effect of Knowledge Provision, Relevancy, Financial and Material Resources on Educational Sustainability in Public Secondary Schools 2023-07-27T10:33:50+05:00 Jam Muhammad Zafar Yasir Ali Tahira Kousar <p>Effective teaching in schools is a major concern in many countries of the world. Objectives of study were to analyze the effect of Knowledge provision on educational sustainability, to analyze the effect of knowledge relevancy on educational sustainability, to analyze the effect of financial resources on educational sustainability and to analyze the effect of material resources on educational sustainability in public secondary schools. Study was survey, descriptive and quantitative in nature. Population of the study comprised head teachers and SSTs of Tehsil Rahim Yar Khan. Multistage stratified sampling was adopted. Findings showed that majority of head teacher and SSTs disagreed that they provided factual knowledge, shared relevant ideas with real world settings and provide financial and material resources to students. It was concluded that majority of head teachers and SSTs disagreed that they keep and deliver updated knowledge for learning, share relevant ideas with real world settings to the students.</p> 2023-07-26T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Effectiveness of the Grammar Translation Method (GTM) in Improving English Language Skills at an Intermediate Level 2023-08-04T12:36:20+05:00 Zohaib Rajput Shamshad Junejo Zoona Ghouri <p>In the past GTM has subjugated the other techniques was measured the significant technique of English language instruction technique. GTM, proper grammar, and syntax are given top priority. The ability to learn new words and phrases that can be used interchangeably (different terminology for different tenses) is what makes this method of teaching a second language to youngsters so much more effective than a verbal education. The students who participated in this study are from intermediate colleges, and their responses focus on how they improved their grammatical skills. In this quantitative study researcher have ten questions for the 200 students; the date was collected through a simple random sampling technique. The objective of this research is to find out how the GTM method is effective. The results of the survey found that most students strongly agreed that the GTM method is effective. The activist features are investigated; downbeat force and convict of GTM can be studied.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Predicting Role of Social Support and Coping in Physical Well-Being of Breast Cancer Patients in Punjab, Pakistan 2023-08-04T12:38:52+05:00 Zarqa Azhar Yasir Nawaz Manj Muhammad Zain ul Abidin <p>Cancer is a fatal disease that can severely compromise a person's health and standard of living. The purpose of this research is to determine factors that are indicative of physical health in women with breast cancer. Using a quantitative research approach, 325 patients with breast cancer were identified using convenience and purposeful sampling. Socioeconomic status, coping methods, social support, and physical health were all measured through the use of a structured questionnaire. Chi-square and gamma-square tests were utilised for the bivariate analysis, and a regression model was applied to the multivariate data. The results of the study showed a close connection between patients' socioeconomic status and their health. In addition, coping methods and social support were found to be substantial predictors of physical health status among those with breast cancer. This quantitative analysis sheds light on what factors are most likely to affect a breast cancer patient's physical health. The findings highlight the significance of addressing socioeconomic inequities, encouraging effective coping mechanisms, and cultivating strong social support systems in order to improve the physical well-being and quality of life of people with breast cancer. These results have implications for healthcare providers and policymakers in the design of tailored therapies to aid breast cancer patients in their fight against the disease and their subsequent recovery and well-being.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Symptoms of PUBG Addiction among Male Adolescents: A Comparison between College Level Student Cricketers Vs Non-Athlete College Students 2023-08-04T12:42:50+05:00 Hafiz Muawiz Bin Zafar Asif Ali Fariq Ahmed <p>This research was undertaken with the objective of comparing the well-being of college level student cricketers and non-athlete college students in relation to Player Unknown's Battlegrounds’ (PUBG). We included 400 male adolescent students between the ages of 16 and 18 who had played PUBG and assessed their gaming addiction by using the Gaming Addiction Scale (GAS). The comparison of data between both groups was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test. A significant distinction exists between athletes and non-athletes. Non-athletes had significantly higher rates of PUBG addiction than college level student cricketers. The findings of this study indicated that cricket athletes have lower levels of PUBG addiction compared to non-athlete adolescents. However, this study utilized self-reported questionnaire to collect data, that lack the comprehensive assessment required for clinical applications. Hence, future investigations should seek to replicate the study’s findings by using experimental approach that could provide a clearer cause-and-effect relationship.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Parenting Role in Delivering Home Based Sexual Education for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder 2023-08-09T10:54:27+05:00 Kashif Iqbal Saleha Asif Iqra Mustafa <p>The adolescent with spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents experience much differently in their lives as compared to the parents of normal adolescents. This study aimed at seeking the challenges which their parents experience during the provision of home-based sexual education. This study was exploratory and qualitative. There were 12 parents of adolescent with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who were the sample of this study. This study used purposive sampling from the group of non-probability sampling technique. A self-developed semi-structured interview protocol was administered to collect data. There were 03 expert who validated the instrument through their expert opinion. An extensive literature review helped the researchers in the reliability of the instrument. The thematic analysis technique was applied for data analysis. Thematic analysis revealed four major themes including parents’ perception, challenges for parents, efforts by parents, and strategies for parents. This study’s findings revealed that majority participants reported that sexual education at home is right of adolescent with ASD. The study recommended special orientation sessions for parents of ASD on home-based sexual education.</p> 2023-08-04T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Treasures of Talpur Ameers: In context to Art and Architecture of Shish Mahal, Khairpur, Sindh 2023-08-10T00:41:33+05:00 Hamid Ali Gadhi Haseeb Ur Rehman Muhammad Hanif Laghari <p>The land of Sindh is rich in agriculture and heritage both tangible and intangible as cultural settlement and built heritage as tombs / shrines mosques palaces forts and grave yards. And was occupied by various dynasties from Arabs 711 AD to the present era ruled by indigenous people or alien people in whom Talpur dynasty is one of them rule over Sindh from 1843-1947 AD. First ruler of Talpur dynasty Mir Fatah Ali Khan Talpur, separates the region into three divisions Khairpur (Suhrabani) , Mirpur Khas (Mankani) and Hyderabad (Shahdadani). The Ameers of Khairpur built forts and lexurary palaces and Shahi Palaces, in which Shish Mahal is one of them located in Taluka Kotdiji, District Khairpur. This Palace is beautifully decorated from inside with their good architecture. The objective of this research is to highlight the main features of architecture, scientific documentation and focusing the details of design and decoration. In construction mud bricks with mortar with lime plaster are used and decorated in fantastic floral patterns and embroidery decoration. and to document the layout plan of through GPS and measurements are taken all features drawings photographic Study research provides the data those who are interested in archaeological architectural study of Talpur dynasty of Khairpur, Sindh.</p> 2023-08-04T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Parental Anxiety and Students’ Academic Stress at Secondary School Level: A Correlation Study 2023-08-22T22:20:50+05:00 Irsa Tayyab Nazish Andleeb Moneeza Aslam <p>This quantitative study was planned to find relationship between parental anxiety and students’ academic stress at secondary level. Population was 9th grade students of Government High Schools of Tehsil Gujrat. Two stages disproportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to select 400 students. Two instruments consisted of 10 items each; 1) parental anxiety scale, 2) students’ academic stress scale on five points Likert scale were developed and validated. Content Validity Index and cronbach alpha of both the scales were found satisfactory. Percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. Results of parental anxiety scale revealed that most of the parents feel anxiety about their children’s homework, preparation of examination, mental health, academic achievement, curricular and co-curricular activities, learning environment, social behavior, ethical values and food of the children. Moreover, students’ stress affects their academic achievement, learning process, cognitive skills, and communication between the teachers and students. Furthermore, significant relationship was found between parental anxiety and academic stress of the students for the academic achievement.</p> 2023-08-04T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fictional Narratives versus State Narratives: A Study of Hussein’s “Karima” as a Fictive Response to the 1971 Partition of Pakistan 2023-08-24T13:13:14+05:00 Muhammad Salman Hareem Hussain Aamer Shaheen <p>The paper reads closely Aamer Hussein’s short story “Karima” as a fictional narrative of the 1971 Partition of Pakistan into Bangladesh, previously known as Eastern wing and Pakistan, previously known as the Western wing of the united Pakistan. Utilizing Cara Cilano’s ideas, as projected in her book: National Identities in Pakistan: The 1971 War in Contemporary Pakistani Fiction (2011), as a theoretical framework, the paper explores various elements of this partition and analyzes the theme of oppression in migrants/refugees camps, class difference between the sons of the soil and the Bihari Muhajirs, identity crisis, ideological Muslim nationalism and violence during the 1971 Partition. The paper also looks into slogan of Muslim nationalism in pre-partition subcontinent and shows dedication of Muslims for this rationale during the partitions of 1947 and 1971. The paper explicates that how, in order to address either the absence or paucity of the state owned narratives, the fictional narratives like “Karima” fill the vacuum and explore various dimensions of the historical events like that of the 1971 Partition uninhibitedly. By projecting all dilemmas and pains which fell on titular character of this short story and her family, the paper portrays the 1971 Partition as a tragic event of oppression and violence.</p> 2023-08-05T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Gaming Disorder and Self-Control among Female Student-Athletes and Female Non-Athletes-Students in Private Sector Universities 2023-08-25T12:51:31+05:00 Saleha Khan Asif Ali <p>The study aimed to seek the difference between gaming disorder and self-control in private university undergraduate levels female athletes and non-athletes. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected from five private institutions, by 340 female students through questionnaires in Lahore, Pakistan.&nbsp; Half were female athletes; half were female non-athletes. A demographic questionnaire, the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS), and the Gaming Disorder Test (GDT) were among the study tools used. The independent T-Test was used in the statistical analysis. The results found that there was no disparity in self-control between female athletes and female non-athletes, whereas gaming disorder was higher in female athletes. This paper reviews the warning signs in female athletes developing gaming disorders therefore all healthcare experts ought to comprehend ways to recognize and address these possible risks.</p> 2023-08-05T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Micro-Level Language Planning of Torwali Language in KPK: A Roadmap for Indigenous Languages and Digital Census-2023 2023-08-26T16:50:54+05:00 Muhammad Hassan Abbasi Mushtaque Ahmed Solangi Wafa Mansoor Buriro <p>This study analyzes the case of an indigenous language in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province within the paradigm of language policy and planning (LPP) where the local linguists along with NGOs and community members are promoting Torwali Language. Language Planning and Policy is a state’s doctrine about the languages to be used within the state and for international communication. Therefore, this study utilizes the three categories status, corpus, and acquisition of LPP as a theoretical model to examine Torwali’s role in society and its impact on the digital census 2023 and indigenous languages. Hence, revitalization and promotion of Torwali language at micro-level put forwards a roadmap for language policy makers, local linguist, and state to follow these steps in promoting the indigenous languages in other provinces. This study presents the case of Torwali language with respect to the three categories, the same steps must be taken by the other indigenous speakers and state to promote their languages.</p> 2023-08-06T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Climate Change Issue in the Pakistani Press: Exploring the Predominant Themes during and after the 2022-Floods 2023-08-27T12:24:08+05:00 Nadeem Akram Nauman Khan Naseer Ahmed <p>Pakistan experienced a devastating flood of unprecedented magnitude during the summer of 2022, setting a new benchmark in terms of its devastating impact this research is an attempt to explore the magnitude of and the themes in the coverage of the floods by tow Pakistani English newspapers; daily the Dawn and daily The News International. This study is an attempt to analyze the scope and nature of the coverage given to the devastating floods by the newspapers during June 01 to September 30, 2022. A mix-method of quantitative and qualitative methodology has been employed to measure the magnitude of the coverage and to analyze the themes in it about the floods within the context of the climate change issue in Pakistan. We have investigated the front, back, international, and Op-Ed pages of the selected newspapers to assess their attention towards the issue under study. Employing the framing as a theoretical framework we have found out that the causes and consequences of climate change were the most commonly discussed topics, followed by the strategies for mitigating its effects and policy deliberations. The results of the inferential analysis, specifically chi-square tests, revealed a statistically significant disparity in the extent of media coverage pertaining to climate change between the periods before and after the occurrence of the floods.</p> 2023-08-07T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Explore the Effectiveness of Vocational Training Services available for Students with Hearing Impairment in Government Institutions of Punjab Province: A Qualitative Probe 2023-08-27T13:30:19+05:00 Saira Zafar Hina Fazil <p>The purpose of this study was to find out the effectiveness of vocational training services for the students with hearing impairment in Punjab Province. Qualitative paradigm was used to conduct this research. Vocational training teachers of students with hearing impairment who were working in Govt. vocational training centers of Special Education were considered as a population of this research. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample for this research. Six vocational teachers of students with hearing impairment of vocational training centers were selected as a sample of this research. Open ended in depth interviews were conducted to gather the information and get the answers to research questions. NVivo was used for thematic analysis. It was concluded that participants were satisfied with the current level of vocational training provided in the institutes. Perception of society, attitude towards vocational training, limited institutes, lack of professional career guidance cells and lack of staff were the main obstacles of vocational training. This qualitative research suggested to vocational training institutes to upgrade their training resources as per the international standards.</p> 2023-08-07T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review Examining the Link between Organizational Structure and Organizational Performance: A Serial Mediation Analysis 2023-08-27T16:56:03+05:00 Amina Tariq Khurram Shahzad <p>The particular aim of this research was to examine the organizational structure as an antecedent of firms’ performance relative to other competitors. In doing so, human resource related factors that may connect the performance and well-being output to organizational structure are also studied as mediators through survey research strategy. This study followed the quantitative survey based research strategy with multi-stage sampling technique. 344 Middle level managers serving currently in different export processing zones’ firms of Pakistan constituted the sample of the study survey from these managers in three time lags. For this explanatory research, the current study assessed the serial mediation regression analysis was done by Hayes (2017) process model. Based on survey of employees working in the firms at export processing zones firms, this research confirms that the firms that have organic organizational structure along with better high performance human resource practices would yield more well-being for employees and better organizational performance in Pakistani context. In addition, the current study represents various future recommendations.</p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Reflection of Traumatic Emotions through Painting: A Cathartic Experience 2023-08-28T11:43:31+05:00 Sidra Liaqat Masooma Abbas <p>Creative process is known as a powerful mode of expressing emotions. The research intends to investigate the relationship between traumatic experience and painting, as artist’s emotional outlet. The study delves into probing the cathartic potential of the act of painting. It emphasizes the role of creative expression through painting in regulating and coping with traumatic emotions resulting from an adverse experience. Employing qualitative research methods, the article studies the impact of emotional struggle on artistic expression. Paintings by the Western artists Vincent van Gogh, Edvard Munch, and Frida Kahlo are analyzed in the light of psychological theories after which the paintings of contemporary Pakistani miniaturist Attiya Shaukat are examined. The in-depth examination of her paintings enables to comprehend the process of painting as an outlet of expressing and relieving from traumatic emotions, termed as catharsis. The discourse on artworks by these artists from diverse backgrounds and in different time-frames, signifies the unanimously shared human experience of coping with trauma. The analytical research contributes to the field of art and psychology by highlighting the emotional benefit gained through creative visual expression.</p> 2023-08-15T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Process of Meaning Creation: A semiotic Analysis of Facebook Posts of English Works! 2023-08-31T12:03:11+05:00 Sabahat Parveen Anam Ikhtiar <p>Facebook posts are strategically created to achieve commercial objectives, encompassing digital advertising, content promotion, and audience engagement. A specific case in point involves the analysis of posts on the English Works! social media page. The study draws upon Kress and Leeuwen’s concept of Multimodality of signs to analyze these visual cues. The findings indicate that each image serves as a sign, conveying insights about the program's essence, updates, events, and activities to the audience. The color palettes used in these images play a pivotal role in establishing the program's agenda and thematic representation. The connotations embedded in the Facebook posts predominantly revolve around themes of learning, unity, celebration, empowerment, success, and recognition. These connotations are intricately tied to the journey of English Works! students. Future researchers could extend the application of semiotics to other forms of visual communication media, such as art photography, banners, and printed advertisements.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Role of Media in Political Polarization: Impacts on Democracy in Pakistan 2023-08-31T12:14:59+05:00 Akash Arshad Aqsa Iram Shahzadi Ali Hassan <p>In this study, the researcher recognized the underlying causes of polarization &amp; extremism in Pakistan and their impact on Democratic Institutions and role of Media in this regard. This article explores the relationship of polarization with religious extremism and gives an insight on a variety of issues like intolerance and exceeding religious violence in Pakistan society. This is the mixed method approach by using content analysis and surveys. Polarization has a direct relationship with the negative development of religious extremism &amp; also direct impact on democratic values, norms and institutions. This article argues that without tackling the issues of polarization &amp; extremism, it is very difficult to become advance &amp; modern nation. It ends with some suggestions to address the increasing polarization &amp; extremism in the society.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Behind Closed Gates: Narratives of Exclusion and Inequality of Male Live-in Domestic Workers in the Gated Communities of Lahore 2023-09-02T13:01:46+05:00 Rahla Rahat Fouzia Sadaf Naveeda Noreen <p>This qualitative study examines the everyday lived experiences of male live-in domestic workers employed in affluent suburban gated communities in Lahore. Rapid urbanization has led to an increased need for housing, resulting in the emergence of large private suburban housing societies, primarily as gated communities. These affluent residential areas accommodate two separate social groups: homeowners/renters and the working class, including live-in domestic workers. However, there is a lack of equitable power distribution and a disregard for these disparities in the design and management of gated communities. This results in exacerbated disparities, social injustice, and exclusion of the economically disadvantaged working class from public spaces and access to essential resources and services. This leads to multiple challenges for both groups including a high turnover rate. Urban planners must recognize these challenges and establish more equitable neighborhoods.</p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes towards Doping among Biochemistry University Students 2023-09-02T14:00:18+05:00 Eeman Naeem Asif Ali Fariq Ahmed <p>The use of prohibited performance-enhancing substances in sports remains a pertinent issue with significant health and ethical issues. Hence, investigating the knowledge, attitude and awareness of biochemistry students towards doping was the main aim of this study. A total of 203 students (164 females and 39 male) from five different universities, voluntarily engaged in this cross-sectional study. The age of these participants ranged from 20-24 years (M = 21.96, SD = 0.961). The findings demonstrated that a considerable percentage of participants are familiar with banned substances due to their biochemistry background. However, there were notable misconceptions as a significant proportion of participants failed to identify these substances as prohibited. These results emphasize the significance of targeted educational interventions aimed at rectifying misconceptions and promoting ethical principles. Furthermore, the influence exerted by coaches, peers and media in building students’ perspectives underscores the necessity for comprehensive awareness campaigns that engage multiple stakeholders.</p> 2023-09-02T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effect of Cooperative Learning on Elementary Students’ Reading Comprehension in English 2023-09-02T22:59:32+05:00 Bushra Saeed Mehwish Gull <p>The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of cooperative learning on elementary school students’ reading comprehension in English. Quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest research design was employed. The study was conducted on 8th grade students in a Government Girls High School district, Faisalabad. Two sections as intact groups were taken to conduct the experiment which was lasted for 8 weeks. Each group was comprised of 35 students. The English Reading Comprehension test was developed following test construction principles. Experimental group students were taught by cooperative learning techniques Jigsaw and Think-Pair-Share in English reading comprehension, at the same time control group students were taught with the traditional method of teaching. Data were analyzed by using inferential statistics (independent samples t-test and paired samples t-test). Study findings revealed that a significant difference was found between experimental and control group students’ reading comprehension in English. Experimental group students significantly performed better in post- test than the control group. It is recommended that cooperative learning might be applied on different school subjects at elementary level.</p> 2023-09-02T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Evaluating Primary-Level English Textbooks of Single National Curriculum through the Lens of Bloom's Taxonomy 2023-09-04T11:24:38+05:00 Irshad Ahmed Ajab Ali Lashari Mehboob Ali Golo <p>This study aims to analyse the application of Bloom's Taxonomy framework in categorising thinking skills, as utilised in English textbook design, following the updated syllabus of the Single National Curriculum. The current study employs a qualitative methodology and content analysis as the chosen method for data analysis in order to obtain the results. The provided sample consists of elementary-level textbooks that have been adopted in Federal Schools in accordance with the newly implemented Single National Curriculum Policy of 2021. The present study examines the sample of textbooks utilized in elementary education, with a specific focus on children in grades one through five. The results of the study indicate that textbooks examined consist of questions that primarily target lower-order thinking abilities (LOTS), with around 89.8% of the items falling within this classification. The scope of the researcher's investigation has been constrained to the cognitive domain as a result of temporal and resource constraints. It is recommended that SNC new curriculum should be student centered to focus on communicative competency of the language learners and the curriculum should be revised as per the need of subject and learners. The representative from all provinces should be the part of the curriculum design in order to design the textbook as per the needs of the multilingual and multicultural learners.</p> 2023-09-03T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Junk Food Consumption and Self-Control among Gymnastics Athletes and Non-Athletes 2023-09-04T21:27:31+05:00 Muhammad Sohail Asif Ali Fariq Ahmed <p>To evaluate the consumption of junk food and self-control among gymnastic athletes and non-athletes was the core objective of this study. The study comprised of 120 participants whose age spanned from 19 to 25 years (M = 20.97, SD = 2.14). The independent t-test, simple linear regression test and descriptive test were used to analyze the data through SPSS version 22. The findings demonstrated significantly higher attitude of non-athletes towards junk food consumption in comparison to their gymnastic athlete counterparts. Moreover, gymnastic athletes showed greater levels of self-control than non-athletes. Furthermore, irrespective of their sports participation, the analysis also depicted an inverse relationship between self-control and junk food consumption. We can suggest that engagement in gymnastics holds the potential to diminish youths’ inclination towards junk food consumption and improvement in the trait of self-control. Hence, policy makers should prioritize the promotion of gymnastic sport to improve their overall well-being.</p> 2023-09-04T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Determining the Energy Literacy among Secondary School Students in Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study 2023-09-05T12:43:41+05:00 Syed Kamran Ali Shah Muqaddas Butt Muhammad Usman Rafique <p>Pakistan is facing an energy crisis that has created serious issues for the weak economy and unstable national security. The objectives were to determine the extent of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of secondary school students regarding energy literacy. A total of 400 students and 28 teachers were selected as the sample. The study concluded that students showed better attitudes and behaviors toward energy literacy but poor knowledge. A strong relationship between affective and behavioral dimensions meant that students knew the significance of saving energy. There was a meaningful difference between the views of students in energy literacy on the basis of gender and school location. It recommended that content related to energy literacy may be updated according to the needs of modern era. As Pakistan is suffering from an energy crisis, it is significant to save energy.</p> 2023-09-05T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Exploration of Ethical Leadership in Teachers in Government High Schools of Lahore 2023-09-06T11:51:08+05:00 Rizwan Ahmad Sumaira Majeed Shamim Ullah <p>The idea of ethics is frequently discussed in educational settings because it is part of daily life for ethical leadership students. Ethical leadership is someone who adheres to the rules because they are significant to him. The purpose of the research was explore the perception of SSTs regarding ethical leadership (EL) as well as the difference in it with respect to demographic characteristics of SSTs. The research was quantitative and descriptive approach was employed. Cross sectional survey was conducted to collect the quantitative data. Head teachers working in Government High Schools of Lahore made up population of the study. 375 head teachers selected randomly participated in the study. Instrument developed by Langlois (2005) was modified with the researcher's consent. In ELs, a six-point rating scale was employed. School administrators' opinions on ethical leadership (EL) and its supporting variables were found to be above average, which is considered to be a positive rating. On the basis of qualification, there was no discernible variation in EL, but there were considerable differences on the basis of age and experience. The current study demonstrated the need of taking into account the advantages of moral leadership while creating an efficient educational system. The results of this study have an impact on daily activities in educational settings.</p> 2023-09-06T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Evolution of Left-Wing Thought: Tracing Ancient Roots to Contemporary Ideologies 2023-09-07T12:01:39+05:00 Afshan Aziz <p>This article comprehensively traces the evolution of left-wing thought from ancient civilizations to contemporary ideologies, highlighting its enduring legacy in advocating for equality and collective well-being. The concept of 'left' symbolizes a departure from traditional hierarchies in favor of a society where the welfare of all supersedes the privileges of a few. Its origins lie in ancient communal living and fairness ideals, championed by thinkers like Plato and fueled by the French Revolution. The article examines historical developments, focusing on figures such as Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin, and Mao Zedong and their contributions to socialist and communist ideologies. It also explores how left-wing principles manifest in indigenous communities and religious movements. Left-wing thought has profoundly shaped political discourse, advocating for equality and collective well-being from ancient times to modern revolutions and global movements. This exploration underscores the enduring pursuit of equality and justice, inspiring continued efforts toward a more equitable world.</p> 2023-09-07T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A Study of Classroom Management Practices of Teachers at Elementary Level in Lahore, Pakistan 2023-09-07T12:34:36+05:00 Sohail Mazhar Muhammad Aslam Shamim Ullah <p>Classroom management in schools includes the action of management’s plans and objectives by keeping students’ progress in mind. Classroom management supports two-way communication and mutual understanding between students and teachers. If a teacher wants to be successful, want their students to get good grades, want their student to learn much as they can from a particular course then the teacher must have to focus on classroom management. This study has focused on classroom management practices of teachers at the elementary level. The population for this particular study was the teachers of elementary schools in Lahore, Pakistan. The sample size for the study was 271 regardless of gender, the sample includes a specialist from all the subjects being taught at elementary level and the sample includes experienced teachers and fresh as well. The results of the study propose that teachers are using all the effective teaching practices in elementary level schools in Lahore to manage their classes effectively. Teachers are supporting the climate which is effective for learning. Teachers are also supporting the learning needs of students and are changing their pattern of teaching based on students’ needs. Teachers are focusing more on group assignments rather than individual work as teachers assume that students learn more while working with their classmates.</p> 2023-09-07T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Gender, Age, and Levels of Physical Exercise Related Risk Factors effecting Sleep among Young Adult Varsity Student-Athletes 2023-09-07T12:41:52+05:00 Asif Ali Ghulam Gous Tamasam Hadayat <p>This study aimed to examine risk factor of sleep problems related with gender, age, levels of physical exercise among varsity student-athletes. Sample included 195 varsity student-athletes from six universities. Data gathering included personal and demographic information, physical exercise level, and sleep health using cross-sectional design. The descriptive analysis showed that over 50 percent of the entire sample was sleeping less than 7 hours per night. In addition, one-fourth of the participants were classified as poor sleepers. Mann-Whitney test indicated that female gender compared with male, lower age compared with greater age, low to moderate levels of physical exercise relative to high level of exercise were more vulnerable to experience sleep problems. These factors should be taken into account to counter sleep issues in varsity student-athletes.</p> 2023-09-07T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A CDA Based Study of Religious Contends of Pakistani Print Media Discourses 2023-09-07T16:37:17+05:00 Furva Rubab Farah Jamil Muhammad Sheraz Khan <p>Print media discourses serve as a prism or a distorting prism to construct and represent a desired version of reality to a particular group during a particular period. Representation of religion through media discourses has never been ideology free. The study at hand attempts to decode the discourse of articles of Pakistani print media (Dawn daily) about representation of religious matters. The data was collected from the articles of the mentioned English newspaper. The delimitation of the study in terms of time span is that the article about representation of religious matters from 1st Feb 2023 to 30th April 2023 have been considered only for analysis. In order to analyse the data the present research employs Van Dijk’s (2006) research model for critical Discourse Analysis. The analytical categories of the model include representation, actor description, metaphor, polarization, number game, authority, lexicalization, topos, comparison, distancing and consensus. The data has been analysed at the level of word, sentence and discourse. The findings of the study highlight that the important themes that emerged include appointment of Imams, concept of Hala and Haram in Islam, extremism and role of religious bodies and how to curb extremism from religion. The study contends that government and concerned religious persons should work in collaboration to bring peace and harmony in religion. Besides, it recommends that interfaith harmony should be preached from all corners.</p> 2023-09-07T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Unfolding the Opulent Golden Age: Gold in Mughal Miniature Court Paintings in the era of Emperor Shah Jahan (1628-1658) 2023-09-08T10:53:53+05:00 Samreen Asghar Aneela Yaseen Hira Nadeem <p>This study explores the extravagant usage of gold in Mughal miniature court painting to depict overgenerous lifestyle of Mughal emperors, especially evaluates the lavish epoch of Shah Jahan. This paper employs descriptive research method to analyze that gold deeply impacted the visual attraction and became symbolic depiction of Mughal art, with a particular emphasis on Shah Jahan's era, often mentioned to as the Golden Age of the Mughal Empire. With the historical imagery references in Mughal miniature paintings, this paper aims to illuminate the various roles that gold has played, such as a symbol of wealth, decoration, and its connection to Mughal traditional art. The conclusion refers that the gold’s enduring symbolism of wealth and power that remains vibrant in contemporary society, preserving its coveted position as a symbol of significance and prestige.</p> 2023-09-07T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Interplay between Parenting Styles and Academic Achievement of Undergraduate Students 2023-09-08T10:57:11+05:00 Muzdalfa Fatima Shaharyar Shoukat Muhammad Bilal <p>In a recent study, parenting styles were identified according to how students perceived them and the association between parenting styles and academic achievement was investigated. It was based on Baumrind's theoretical concept of parenting. It consists of authoritarian, lenient and authoritative parenting philosophies. The three parenting styles were evaluated using a modified version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri, 1991) which took into account students' perceptions of their parents' parental supervision methods. All Lahore undergraduate students, including both male and female students from all universities, made up the study's population. Random sampling technique was employed and 200 students made up the sample's total number of respondents. The two genders were equally represented via random sampling. Research design of the study was correlational and for the purpose of data collection, a cross-sectional survey was adopted. Data was analyzed statistically by using SPSS. Inferential statistics and descriptive statistics were used. The study findings reveals that permissive parenting style has the greatest mean value, followed by Authoritative parenting and Authoritarian parenting. A low negative correlation between parenting styles and academic achievement was found. There was a substantial correlation between the data.</p> 2023-09-07T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Exploring Transitional Pathways to Post Secondary and Higher Education for Youth with Physical Disabilities in Punjab 2023-09-11T11:05:56+05:00 Muhammad Tahir Ghulam Fatima Saima Shaheen <p>The transition from high school to post-secondary education is difficult for most students, but those difficulties are amplified by the extra complexity of handicap. The purpose of the study was to explore whether school administration obstructs seamless transition for students with physical disabilities, the effect of school-institution collaboration, and whether self-help skills, and travel training are barriers to successful transitions. Survey approach as well as descriptive research was employed. 30 items, self-constructed questionnaire was used. A sample of 115 teachers of physical impaired students, working in government special schools, was taken from five divisions of Punjab i.e., Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, and Sahiwal. Results revealed that schools evaluate students' readiness, provide travel training, challenging courses, use role-playing activities and offer community-based programs for transition of students with physical limitations to college. It is recommended that a collaborative effort involving parents, educators, administrators, and nonprofit organization is vital for smooth school-to-higher education transitions.</p> 2023-09-10T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Initial Challenges and Opportunities for the Parents of Children Born with ERB's Palsy in Rural and Urban Areas of Punjab, Pakistan 2023-09-11T18:27:32+05:00 Hina Fazil <p>This study investigates the unique challenges and opportunities faced by parents of children born with Erb's Palsy in rural and urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Erb's Palsy, characterized by arm paralysis due to a birth-related brachial plexus injury, poses multifaceted challenges affecting physical, emotional, and socioeconomic aspects of afflicted families. Through quantitative research involving 200 parents surveyed via structured questionnaires, the study reveals disparities between rural and urban parents in terms of knowledge levels, initial difficulties encountered, and coping strategies. Urban parents tend to possess higher awareness and employ more effective coping methods compared to their rural counterparts who face greater initial challenges. Education plays a pivotal role, with a positive link between higher education levels and increased awareness. These findings underscore the importance of targeted awareness campaigns, improved healthcare accessibility, and strengthened support systems to enhance the well-being and prospects of Erb's Palsy-affected families in Punjab, Pakistan. Implementing these recommendations can create a more inclusive and supportive environment for these children, improving their chances of leading fulfilling lives.</p> 2023-09-11T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dilemmas Confronted by Special Education Teachers in Facilitating Mathematical Competencies among Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 2023-09-11T11:08:47+05:00 Maria Mushtaq Amna Azka Asma Kanwal <p>Mathematical skills are important for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) to function and be independent in their daily life. Learning math skills is more crucial since people with IDDs have weak social, practical, and conceptual skills. The main purpose of this quantitative study is to identify the problems faced by special education teachers in teaching mathematical skills to students with IDDs. Population of the study consisted of special education teachers working in Lahore. A sample of 80 special educationalists selected purposefully from different special education schools in Lahore. Researchers used self-developed questionnaire to take responses from respondents. Researchers analyzed the data by using parametric statistic. Frequency distributions of teacher’s responses were calculated. Major findings revealed that special education teachers face a little problem in teaching pre-number concepts but face a lot of problems in teaching division, subtraction and addition in mathematical operations. Conclusion was drawn and recommendations were given to parents and teachers to overcome the issues regarding mathematical skills of students with IDDs.</p> 2023-09-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Navigating Pakistan’s Educational Policy Landscape in Pursuit of Sustainable Development Goal 4: A view of Stakeholders 2023-09-13T14:02:57+05:00 Hina Fazil Nadeem Ahmad <p>This study aimed to qualitatively assess educational policies in Pakistan in the context of achieving Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4). The research used in-depth interviews with a diverse group of participants, including educators, officials, and stakeholders from both public and private education sectors. A semi-structured interview protocol was designed to investigate legal aspects of inclusion, equitable quality education, and lifelong learning experiences related to SDG-4 in Pakistan. The study included 15 purposively selected respondents, and their interviews were recorded and transcribed. The findings revealed barriers to SDG 4 achievement, such as governance issues, low stakeholder participation, and challenges in monitoring and budget allocation. The study recommends prioritizing capacity building and fostering stakeholder ownership to effectively implement SDG 4 at the federal and provincial levels in Pakistan's education system.</p> 2023-09-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Role of Speech Language Therapy in Academic Achievements of Students with Hearing Impairment at Special Education Schools and Centers 2023-09-13T14:07:56+05:00 Fatima Waqar Ghulam Fatima Sehrish Riaz <p>This study is conducted to explore the role of speech language therapy in academic achievement of students with hearing impairment at special education schools and centers. The central purpose of the study is to identify the effects of speech and language therapy on hearing impaired students’ learning and on their grades. Highlight how speech therapy helps in communication development of H.I students. This study suggests some measures which may be helpful in overcoming the communication complications experienced by the hearing impaired students in classroom. It also provides a guideline to teachers how they can improve coordination with H.I students. A quantitative research was used to conduct this study. The population of study was comprised of the speech therapists and teachers of students with hearing impairment. A self-developed and validated questionnaire based on five-point Likert scale was used to collect data. Data was analyzed by SPSS. The results of the entire study concluded that speech and language difficulties have an impact on children with hearing impairments' academic performance and that speech therapists are essential for H.I students' academic performance. Each student receives the knowledge and opportunities necessary to realize their full academic potential from speech therapists. According to the information presented, speech therapists have employed a variety of techniques and therapies to help students reach their academic goals.</p> 2023-09-13T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Insanity, Insanity Defense, and the Elements of Crime: A Review 2023-09-13T14:12:52+05:00 Ali Ajmal Faiza Rasool Farooq Umair Niazi <p>Insanity, insanity defense, and the elements of crimes are closely related to each other. An insane person cannot be punished for the crimes committed by him. However, insanity is a concept that has different connotations across academic disciplines. The law is interested in the legal insanity of an accused. Actus reus and mens rea, in most cases, are the essential components of a crime. The defense of insanity, which is an excuse defense against criminal liability is more relevant to the mens rea. Whereas the defense of automatism is more concerned with the actus reus. This paper analyzes the concepts of insanity and insanity defense in the context of elements of crime employing doctrinal legal analysis. The findings of this paper suggest that there is a need to interpret the concepts of insanity, insanity defense, and the elements of crimes, and the relationship among them when the accused is suffering from mental disorders by adopting multidisciplinary approaches.</p> 2023-09-13T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Portrayal of Pakistani Culture in Hollywood Movies: Pre and Post 9/11 2023-09-13T22:22:18+05:00 Saniya Moazzam Zahid Yousaf <p>Movies have a tremendous impact on how people think and feel about various subjects, the portrayal of other cultures in film has been a topic worthy of critical study for a long time. This research aims to investigate the portrayal of Pakistani Culture in Hollywood films before the tragic events of September 11, 2001, by conducting a qualitative content analysis of Hollywood films. Before and after 9/11, two movies were selected through a purposive sampling technique. The results showed that Hollywood films frequently incorporate stereotyped depictions of Pakistani Culture and vigorously spread Orientalist generalizations about the country's people and their history. The researchers developed six themes after reviewing the extensive literature where gender inequity is pervasive, and individuals confront the ever-present threat of terrorist attacks. This image contributes to perpetuating negative generalizations about Pakistan and its people. Extremism and terrorism are the most prevalent issues in this study's pre-9/11 segment. Moreover, espionage and intrigue is the most prevalent theme in selected movies.</p> 2023-09-13T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Limits of A Moralism: A Critical Study of Marxist View of Revolution 2023-09-15T11:51:43+05:00 Muhmmad Jawwad <p>The objective of this study is to investigate the limits of A moralism and critically examine the concept of Revolution in the Philosophy of Karl Marx, who is regarded as the most famous and influential among the Western philosophers and to elaborate the complete A moral character of Marxist Philosophy and to understand and share the dangers of it. The important concepts in Marxism like Dialectical Materialism, Historical Determinism and Alienated Labor have also been studied. The study is fundamentally theoretical and qualitative in nature in which the original writings of Marx, Popper, Thomas Hobbes etc. are used. Finally, it is concluded that there should be a limit to A moralism and it is recommended that every student of Philosophy, History and Political Science should concentrate about the moral or A moral characters of the political ideologies.</p> 2023-09-14T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afropolitanism in Adichie's Americanah: A Transcultural Afrodiasporic Study 2023-09-16T16:30:31+05:00 Yumna Shahid Mazhar Hayat Tasawar Abbas Shah <p>This study explores afropolitanism in Adichie's Americanah. Transculturalism as a sociocultural phenomenon is an emerging area of migration studies. The transcultural lens provides researchers the ability to transcend fixed notions of identity and belonging. Transcultural humanities is not just a discourse of intercultural dialogue but of mutual transformation. Transcultural literary studies and Afropolitan discourse and perspectives go together with contemporary cultural currents as they address the transcendental nature of cultural boundaries. A transcultural perspective sees the world as fluid and considers the contingency of culture about different visions, multilocal experiences, and indeterminate scope. It can cross boundaries and blur binaries. This study seeks to redefine and reimagine Africanness via the transcultural Afrodiasporic lens of Adichie. The Afropolitan transcultural writers tend to shun the idea of a single story of Africa and deconstruct the anomaly of perception linked with African literature. This study seeks to de-essentialize Africanness via the deconstruction of stereotypes and hyperreal images of Africa painted by both Afropessimists and the West. This study takes Selasian multilocal metropolitan discourse, Adichie's notion of the Danger of a Single Story, and Ben Okri's narrative of artistic freedom and blends these ideas with transcultural notions of plurality, politics of home, and cultural flux.</p> 2023-09-16T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sino-Indian War 1962: Impacts on Foreign Policy of Pakistan towards Kashmir 2023-09-17T13:52:11+05:00 Rizwana Zaman Israr Ullah Khan <p>This paper analyzes Pakistan’s foreign policy evolution concerning Kashmir following the 1962 Sino-Indian war, investigating influencing factors. The Sino-Indian war’s aftermath profoundly impacted Pakistan’s foreign policy, particularly regarding the Kashmir dispute with India. The “enemy of my enemy is my friend” principle bolstered Sino-Pak ties, affecting Kashmir. The study examines Pakistan’s foreign policy through various lenses, including its US defense alliance, President Ayub Khan’s policies, military strategies, operations, and bilateral relations with China and the Soviet Union. It scrutinizes Pakistan’s 1962-1969 relationship with the US, focusing on the 1965 India-Pakistan war and its Kashmir implications. Results indicate that the Sino-Indian war significantly shaped Pakistan’s foreign policy, fortifying its Kashmir stance against India and influencing alliances and strategies. The study underscores the importance of historical context and international alliances in comprehending foreign policy shifts and advocates further research into the lasting impacts of such events on regional geopolitics.</p> 2023-09-17T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan: Reasons of Imran Khan’s Downfall 2023-09-19T16:12:12+05:00 Samra Hameed Gulshan Majeed <p>During last three decades Civil-Military Relations debate intensified and has received renewed interest. Unfortunately Pakistan had long history of troubled relations; military intervened directly on three occasions. While not being in government, military still manage to control and remain the most hegemonic institution of the state. The objective of this article is to understand the causes of imbalanced civil-military relations in Pakistan and reasons of Imran khan differences with army. This article discusses civil-military relations, army’s direct and indirect involvement in politics, political anomalies and its implication on Pakistan. The key variables and military’s political behaviour are explained through various empirical examples from Pakistani historical and contemporary politics. Researchers have used qualitative content analysis to explain various phenomena’s and realities of civil–military relations in Pakistan. This article has tried to describe civil-military relations in Pakistan, reasons and role of army in Khan’s downfall and provides a theoretical solution.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Challenges Encountered by Quality Management System ISO 9001:2015 Implementation at the Universities 2023-09-23T20:09:03+05:00 Muhammad Adnan Maqbool Fasiha Altaf Sunble Bibi <p>In higher education, great transformation is underway. This study describes the challenges of ISO 9001:2015 implementation. This study used a qualitative approach. Public and private universities’ QEC directors were chosen as a population. Fourteen QEC directors were chosen as the study's sample from fourteen universities. One respondent was chosen through purposive sampling from each university. Interviews that were semi-structured were used to get the data. Data analysis was performed using the software QDA Miner Lite once the data had been collected. It was determined that the challenges include a lack of funding, lack of awareness, a lack of staff and faculty involvement and cooperation, a lack of human and financial resources. IPE integration and implementation will offer a platform. If HEC establishes standards and issues orders for notification for international accreditation, the university may be included in quality management system practices on a global level. Giving universities incentives and rewards, providing adequate training for employees, hiring newly trained, dedicated employees, providing universities with special funding for ISO certification.</p> 2023-09-23T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Analytical Study of Perspective Techniques in Leonardo da Vinci's Paintings 2023-09-23T20:11:49+05:00 Ahmed Faraz <p>The western Renaissance is a revolutionary phase with respect to artistic methods. The art of Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci shows scientific use of the compositional elements. His contributions of perspective theories reflect a connection between the fields of art and science. This research examines Leonardo’s use of perspective in the paintings, which is an everlasting influence on art and science till the present time. In A Treatise on Painting, Leonardo documents the feature of human vision which is capable to perceive the spatial depth. He presents linear perspective and atmospheric perspective as vital devices for creating an effect of depth in the painting. In addition, the techniques of sfumato and chiaroscuro give his paintings a realistic appeal. The article offers demonstration of linear perspective through diagrams laid over the images of Leonardo’s paintings. Further, it analyzes the paintings formally to study perspective in relation to the subject painted. The emphasis is laid on the balance and harmony achieved through the use of perspective techniques.</p> 2023-09-23T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SWOT Analysis of Artificial Intelligence: Empirical Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry of Pakistan 2023-09-23T20:13:57+05:00 Jaweria Jan Muhammad Mudasser Ali Khan <p>Article intelligence is the fastest-growing technology globally across all industries. According to the researcher, by the end of 2030, almost 50% of the industry will operate based on artificial intelligence models. This study aims to examine the SWOT analysis of the article Intelligence. A quantitative-based approach was used by SmartPLS to examine this impact. Data was gathered from 300 managerial-level employees of the pharmaceutical industry across Pakistan. This study's results show several strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to artificial intelligence in the pharmaceutical industry. However, strengths are the highest factors that create a good platform for artificial intelligence to further expand in the pharma industry. While the threats were the least affecting factors for artificial intelligence in the pharma industry of Pakistan.</p> 2023-09-23T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Community Participation with Schools: Towards Equitable and Inclusive Education for All Children with Special Needs 2023-09-25T10:43:42+05:00 Mishal Fatima Ghulam Fatima Ayesha Raza <p>The aim of this study was to explore the community participation with schools, towards equitable and inclusive education for children with Special Needs. Quantitative method was used to collect data empirically through questionnaires. The researchers developed a questionnaire consisting of three sections and each section contained 12 items so questionnaire consisted of 36 items. The data was collected from 120 teachers of Sahiwal, Bahawalnagar and Lahore district. After this, percentages of responses were calculated through descriptive statistics using frequencies. The mean and standard deviation were also calculated. The research has shown the community participation towards equitable and inclusive education which resulted in creation of inclusive community where stigma and discrimination against children with disabilities (PWDs) do no longer have place. To effectively promote inclusive education all over the country and consequently create inclusive society, the Government of Pakistan, through its ministries in charge of education, local governance, and family protection should adopt, improve, and implement the community involvement considerations as revealed in this research.</p> 2023-09-25T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Post- Divorce Issues and Challenges: A Phenomenological Study of Divorced Mothers from District Sialkot, Pakistan 2023-09-25T13:11:36+05:00 Mehwish Khalid Maryam Saleem Zonera Khalid Mir <p>Divorce is on the rise as a prominent social issue within contemporary societies and the term “Talaaq” has been linked with a strong social taboo in Pakistani culture. The present research article investigates “The Post-divorce Issues and Challenges of Divorced Mothers from District Sialkot, Pakistan”. A qualitative phenomenological research design was used to explore the firsthand experiences of the divorced mothers. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit seven divorced mothers as study participants. The data was later analyzed thematically and for enhancing the methodological and analytical processes labelling theory was also employed. The findings revealed that during the post-divorce period, divorced mothers demonstrated a high level of distress in providing the right place to their children in society. Considering the challenges encountered by divorced mothers, this study will be an effort to investigate the socioeconomic difficulties experienced by divorced mothers while socializing and meeting the financial needs of their children.</p> 2023-09-25T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effect of Changes in Planning on Project Objectives in Construction Industry of Pakistan 2023-09-25T20:44:04+05:00 Atif Sohail Imran Ghafoor Shahan Mahmood Cheema <p>Changes are very common and likely to occur at any stage of the project. The research is done to know the effect of changes in planning on scope, time and cost. Actual filed data from the construction industry of Pakistan was collected to know the real time effect. Project trade-off is one of the most important parts for all important projects. According to field data collected it found that mostly changes does not cause reduction in project scope and project cost, but they can reduce the project time. As the project objectives are closely linked to each other’s, a study can be conducted to know the effect of one project objective over the other one. The Results of this research are very use full to create a relation between project changes in planning and their effect on project objectives; scope, cost and time.</p> 2023-09-25T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Security Strategy of USA: A Critical Analysis on the Role of USA towards Third World Countries 2023-09-27T12:22:47+05:00 Fizza Ali Saira Iqbal Arshad Ali <p>This article thoroughly examines the national security strategy of USA in context of its role towards third world country. This is an analytical and descriptive in nature. The third world is not sitting idle about this situation and they are taking numerous steps to free themselves of this unchecked influence of the United States. The primary aim of this study is to examine and assess the involvement of the United States in developing nations, specifically focusing on the extent of US interference, provision of assistance, imposition of limitations, and military interventions in these countries. The finding suggests that United States is now facing a series of economic challenges that coincide with a critical period for its armed forces. These forces are actively engaged in combating radical Islamic organisations on a global scale, while also being involved in military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. The finding suggests that in the realms of economic interest, instances of collaboration among Third World countries tend to exhibit significant prominence. From the outset, a number of observers had seen the concerted efforts undertaken by the Third World States during the United States Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The rationales put up in support of the solidarity of the Third World have mostly been ad hoc, subjective, and descriptive in nature.</p> 2023-09-27T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Revealing the Unrevealed: An Investigation of Gothic Marxism in Ayesha Muzaffar’s Jinnistan 2023-09-27T12:26:00+05:00 Warisha Mahmood Warda Abbas Fizza Rehman <p>The research paper dissects the major characters along with their encounters with the ghosts in their daily life routine revealing the unrevealed political cards behind their narration endeavoring to achieve the utilitarian cause of contemporary Pakistani horror literature. Capitalism being an immortal malice has its own set of traumas attached to it and any revolution beyond that is believed to have its own kind of traumatic risks. The theory of ‘Gothic Marxism’ has been kept under scrutiny to sketch the fears aroused after apprehending the unconsciousness of capitalism which plagues a society through a particular cultural expression. All these dilemmas being clearly witnessed in the ideologies of laymen by anatomizing the genre of horror fiction depict the blind following of the unauthentic beliefs and cultural superstitions, leading the proletariats being processed into the corporeal fragility of capitalism. The cause ultimately compels to capture an aesthetic capacity along with a culturally therapeutic effect in the selected short stories of Abu’s Jinn by Ayesha Muzaffar, through colossal fears engraved into cultural imaginations, on a mass level and their shift resonating with anxieties of rapid economic development historically.</p> 2023-09-27T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023