Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review (PLHR) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. PLHR is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes <strong>Quarterly</strong>. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) en-US Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2708-6453 <p><img src="https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/public/site/images/adminplhr/open-access.png" alt="" width="500" height="200" /></p> <p><strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC)</strong> &amp; <strong>PAKISTAN LANGUAGES AND HUMANITIES REVIEW (PLHR)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>PLHR</strong> agree to the <strong>copyright policy</strong> under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>PLHR</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>PLHR</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC)</strong> &amp; <strong>PAKISTAN LANGUAGES AND HUMANITIES REVIEW (PLHR)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access</strong> Policy for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></p> <p><a href="https://sfdora.org/"><img src="https://plhr.org.pk/images/signatory-of-dora.png" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> Demystification of Traditional Sacred: A Democratic Individual Perspective in Peter Weir’s Film Dead Poets Society https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/806 <p>This study aims at analyzing the impacts of the stranglehold of traditional sacred in the education system as depicted in the selected film. For this analysis, Shlomo Wolbe's educational theory (2000) is followed. The education system, as described in Dead Poets Society, spoils the potential of the learners. The goal of self-actualization is neither set forth as a target aim nor achieved. The ripple generated by a new teacher who himself has been a product of the same subverted mode of education ends in his own dismissal from his job. One of the students who truly internalizes the pure sense of learning (contrary to traditional one) could not be accepted by society and hence commits suicide. This study takes Wolbe’s model of democratization of the educational system as a theoretical framework. It was Dewey’s Democracy and Education (1985) that raised a dissenting voice and gave a postulate of democratic individualism instead of rote learning. Wolbe took it to further practical ground in the field of educational development.</p> Malik Muhammad Iqbal Muhammad Ibrahim Khokhar Uroosa Aurangzeb Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 01 10 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)01 Traversing the Third Space: Hybridity, Alienation, and Non-Assimilation in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/807 <p>The present study aims at exploring the issues of third space, hybridity, and the identity crisis of Pakistani people living in the West, especially in the United States of America, in light of the analysis of Mohsin Hamid's The Reluctant Fundamentalist‎. Homi K. Bhabha's idea of the third space has been used as the theoretical framework to analyse the text. According to the study of Mohsin Hamid's The Reluctant Fundamentalist, the greatest hindrance to natural and mutually beneficial connections across many nations and cultures is American society's hatred and lack of acceptance for individuals from other cultures. Moreover, the study underscores the stark truth that Pakistani citizens, notwithstanding their sincere efforts, ultimately find themselves trapped in a liminal space that exists between their native culture and the host culture, rendering those aliens in both. This heightened degree of alienation is manifested in the characters' hardships, which illustrate the enormous obstacles they face when attempting to assimilate into a culture that frequently sustains feelings of estrangement and exclusion.</p> Syed Faisal Sajjad Shah Muhammad Ibrahim Khokhar Waqar Ul Haq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 11 18 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)02 Postcolonial Identity and Discourse: Foucauldian Analysis of Shamsie’s A God in Every Stone https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/808 <p>The term ‘Post-colonial identity and discourse’ is the cultural, social and political web that prevails in societies following the end of the colonial rule. This interconnected terminology also negotiates colonial structure of knowledge production and representation seeking to decentre Eurocentric perspectives and amplify marginalized voices. This paper seeks to achieve the objective of fostering alternative visions of self-determination, sovereignty, and solidarity among formerly colonized peoples by employing Foucauldian analysis on Kamila Shamsie's novel, "A God in Every Stone." Drawing upon the works of Michel Foucault (2016) and through a close reading of key characters and events, this analysis elucidates how colonial power structures and systems of knowledge production intersect in the novel to shape individual and collective identities. The present study is qualitative in nature. The data has been collected through the close reading technique of the A God in Every Stone. Moreover the findings of the study suggest that the elements of power and resistance are present in the novel and further the researcher has found different dimensions of Foucault’s power, i.e., Sovereign power and disciplinary power through the dialogues of the characters as mentioned in the novel. The upcoming researchers can compare different literary works based on the presence of element of power and resistance. They can further compare different dimensions of power in the same literary text in the years to come.</p> Zunaira Shahi Haniya Munir Anbreen Akhtar Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 19 27 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)03 Effectiveness of Code-Switching in Pakistani University ESL Classroom: Action Research https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/809 <p>Code-switching (CS) in English Second Language (ESL) classrooms is among the most debated topics in educational circles. This study reports action research results addressing the effectiveness of code-switching as an ESL teaching technique for low-achiever undergraduate students of a private university in Lahore. The study includes 50 English language learners at the beginner level. The researchers conducted action research with that class using a CS teaching methodology for reading comprehension. For data collection, focused group interviews, questionnaires, and observations were incorporated. The findings suggest that CS is effective in three ways: It enhances understanding of the English content; Students feel more confident and responsive to comprehension-based questions; CS aids in creating a good rapport between the teacher and students. The research helped the researcher to improve the overall class environment resulting a productive teaching-learning process.</p> Amna Murad Shabana Zafar Zakia Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 28 36 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)04 Linguistic Brilliance: Decoding the Multifaceted Role of Bilingualism in Higher Education Institutions of Punjab, Pakistan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/810 <p>This study explores the impact, benefits, and challenges of bilingualism in Punjab's higher education institutions. It combines qualitative and quantitative analysis, using a Likert scale-based questionnaire and conducting semi-structured interviews with educators. Convenience sampling is utilized, collecting data from 100 participants (84 students and 16 educators) across different universities. The data collection and analysis procedures were designed for validity and reliability, employing a comprehensive sampling approach and pilot testing. The findings reveal that bilingualism in the classroom contributes to the development of language proficiency, cognitive processes, cultural awareness, academic performance, teaching approaches, and career opportunities. However, it also presents both benefits and challenges, such as facilitating understanding of new concepts, complex ideas, and better student engagement, while simultaneously posing difficulties in accommodating diverse linguistic backgrounds and understanding different teaching techniques, particularly for students from rural areas. Overall, the study recommends the educators and policy makers to optimize the bilingual teaching environment.</p> Maeda Shakil Mirza Amna Fayyaz Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 37 47 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)05 The Impact of the Connectivist Learning Model on the Writing Skills of Pakistani Digital Natives https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/811 <p>The current research aims to investigate the impact of the Connectivist Learning Model on the writing skills of ESL learners in Pakistan. Framework based on Connectivism learning theory strives to enable "social connection" and "mental node development" when writing while offering group idea pooling, debate, transliteration, and editing options. Moreover, it examines how authors create their writings while interacting with their peers. Therefore, to obtain the desired data, a Quasi-experimental approach was used to measure the impact of the model. Ninety undergraduate ESL learners were selected and divided into two groups of 45 each. The groups were randomly selected as control and experimental groups, respectively. Both groups were pre-tested. Only the experimental group received the intervention, while the control group was taught writing skills using the traditional method. After three months, the post-test was administered to both groups, and the scores were compared to see the impact. The results of the tests showed that the experimental group's learners exhibited significant improvement in their writing skills. The implications of this research extend across various dimensions of education, ranging from policy and curriculum design to teacher training and technology infrastructure. By taking these implications into account, educators, policymakers, and researchers can contribute to advancing educational practices that are responsive to the needs of students in an increasingly interconnected and digital world.</p> Aisha Ilyas Tahira Asgher Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 48 61 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)06 Repositioning Female Sensibility: A Postfeminist Study of Pakistani Chick Lit The Diary of a Social Butterfly https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/813 <p>The paper studies the complexities of contemporary Pakistani female sensibility problematized by Pakistani chick lit. The Diary of a Social Butterfly is an intricate work of postfeminism presenting new female visibility and sensibility by challenging traditional notions of Pakistani womanhood. The study explores the struggles, resistance, and agency of Butterfly as she navigates through intersectional socio-cultural and politico-economic milieu of Pakistani society, creating an inclusive space for nuanced discussions on power dynamics and gender roles within Pakistani gender topology shaped by hegemonizing nexus of globalization, neoliberalism, and popular culture. It is qualitative research that studies repositioning of Pakistani female sensibility using critical angles of Gill’s postfeminist sensibility, Dosekun’s transcultural postfeminism and Mohanty’s agentic third world feminism. The study reveals that Pakistani chick lit not only problematizes the polemics of Western postfeminism, but challenges the tropes of Pakistani feminism, offers nuances of heteronormativity, provides re-positioned desi postfeminist sensibility and becomes an emancipatory paradigm in which Butterfly enjoys autonomy formulating a paradox of postfeminism.</p> Safana Hashmat Ali Usman Saleem Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 62 76 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)07 Stereotypical Roles and Sexist Language: A Feminist Stylistic Study of Selected Fictions of Sidhwa and Hamid https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/814 <p>The present study attempts to explore the feminist stylistic analysis of stereotypical roles and sexist language in Sidhwa’s An American Brat (1993) &amp; Hamid’s Exit West (2017). The objective of this study is to investigate linguistic items to unpack the sexism in language and gender roles in the selected novels. The qualitative approach is utilized in this study. The research’s data comprises words, phrases, or sentences, and discourses that express gender in the chosen novels. The data is analyzed by the researchers using the three-level analysis model proposed by Mills (1995). The study’s findings demonstrate that while Hamid’s Exist West promotes non-traditional gender roles by portraying Nadia as a pragmatic and rational character, Sidhwa’s An American Brat exhibits gender stereotyping through the characters of Zareen and Cyrus. Because of this stereotyping, sexism is frequently applied to the female gender in Sidhwa’s selected work and sparingly in Hamid’s chosen fiction. By increasing future scholars’ awareness of the part language plays in upholding or challenging gender norms, this feminist study will broaden their perspectives while stimulating their minds to a certain enlightenment that can snap the chains of gender stereotyping.</p> Nabeeha Qayyum Palwasha Saeed Muzaffar Qadar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 77 89 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)08 The Effect of Online Article Writing on Pakistani English Language Graduates' Writing Skills https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/815 <p>In wake of current digitalization of knowledge, the use of virtual tools and platforms is proliferating to cultivate English language skills. Despite the research conducted in this area, there is still room for further inquiry as little research is available in the context of Pakistan. With the intention to fill the gap, this study aimed at fathoming the impact of online writing articles on the language proficiency of English language learners/graduates. Primarily, the current research intended to investigate whether the language skills of learners improves by online writing and whether self-assessment has a positive impact. The study is a quantitative research. Consequently, a 15-item questionnaire was designed to collect data from English Graduates, currently working as content writers across Pakistan. 5-point Likert-scale was employed to measure the participants’ perceptions. The findings show that online writing practices have a positive impact on overall language skills in general and lexico-grammatical competence in particular. Additionally, they admitted that online article writing can prove a better contributor than other traditional writing practices carried out in a language classroom to enhance their English language skills.</p> Kainat Zeb Muhammad Waqar Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 90 100 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)09 Investigating the Relationship between Willingness to Communicate and Oral Proficiency in English https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/816 <p>This article aimed to investigate the relationship between willingness to communicate and learners’ oral proficiency in English. For this purpose, this study aimed to find out the link between WTC and oral language competency in English. It looked at the relationship between WTC and other characteristics such as self-confidence, desire to communicate, and anxiety. Lastly, It targeted to see if are there any gender-based differences in WTC and learners’ oral proficiency in English. The participants were 88 male and 87 female undergraduate students. The correlational analysis showed a significant correlation between the variables. T-test however highlighted non-significant gender-based differences. This study would aid in raising awareness about having good self-confidence level, a strong desire to communicate and a stress-free atmosphere for successful language learning.</p> Afifa Saher Muhammad Imran Samina Sarwat Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 101 108 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)10 Reflexivization in Binding: An Analysis of Mewati NP Structures https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/817 <p>This paper investigates the structural binding of NPs in Mewati language with a special focus on the use of anaphors within NPs. The origin of Mewati dates back to Old Mewat and Rajhistan in India. This language is spoken among the Meo people living in Lahore, Sialkot, Narowal, Kasur and various other cities in Pakistan. The syntactic order of Mewati is SOV which is a definable feature of most of the Indo Aryan languages. Nominal pronouns of Mewati language differ in terms of case, gender and number but reflexive pronoun is neutral with regard to phi-features. The principles and conditions laid in Binding theory proposed by Chomsky (1981) provide a theoretical framework for this study.The findings explore that in contrast to English where reflexive vary with gender and number, a single reflexive or anaphor is used in Mewati. The results recommend investigating the syntactic patterns of all Pakistani languages in order to create computational frameworks in those languages.</p> Hafza Munazza Akhtar Amna Anwar Um ul Huda Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 109 123 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)11 Exploring the Dark Side of Connectivity: A Review of Phubbing Literature https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/818 <p>Phubbing is a behaviour that can be defined as the act of ignoring interlocutors in a social interaction while using a mobile phone (Chotpitayasunondh &amp; Douglas, 2016). This paper provides a thorough examination of the existing literature, specifically addressing the antecedents and outcomes of phubbing behavior. The current study seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of the literature review in relation to phubbing behaviour, specifically in the workplace. A thorough examination was carried out on 63 articles from the SSCI database, encompassing the years 2013 to 2024. The results of the comprehensive literature review suggest that there are two different dimensions of a phubbing behavior along with the two categories i.e., antecedents and outcomes. This paper, which draws on a review of research spanning a decade, adds to our knowledge of phubbing behavior in the workplace and stresses the need to address this issue for the sake of interpersonal relationship along with organizational effectiveness and employee performance.</p> Kanwal Shahzadi Nyela Ashraf Amina Tariq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 124 137 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)12 Unlocking the Metaverse Potential: Evaluation of Public and Private Higher Educational Institutions in Pakistan on adoption to Futuristic Technologies https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/820 <p>Metaverse is considered as a modern day virtual reality based technology which has the capability to transform the world through virtual universe creation with limitless possibilities for learning, training, education, business and many more. However its adaptability and integration is yet a big question with respect to Pakistan as a developing world country with lack of high-end technological systems deployment and poor research &amp; development prioritization. The current research aims to explore how far the public as well as private educational universities in the context of second largest city of Pakistan i.e. Lahore are responding to its integration in educational endeavors. Major aspects included in research were understanding of the Metaverse, the potential applications of Metaverse in higher education, the transformation of learning and teaching approaches, and the opportunities for career and professional development as well its challenges. Qualitative approach was used through on-site face to face semi-structured interviews with relevant officials from four universities with focus on Metaverse adaptation in future with diversified thematic analysis. Results showed positive attitude towards adoption with defined and undefined challenges as well as higher need for training, deployment and resource dedication. It was recommended that proper trainings, avenue development, deployment projects and prior research &amp; development be ensured for future transformative adoption to Metaverse.</p> Zakra Ahmad Samana Batool Omer Shujat Bhatti Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 138 147 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)13 Racial Discrimination in Young Adult Diasporic Fictions: A Critical Analysis https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/821 <p>This study is conducted to explore the racial components in the Afro-American and Middle- East young adult diasporas’ writings "The Hate U Give" (2017) by Angie Thomas (Afro-American) and&nbsp;&nbsp; (Iranian-American) "A Very Large Expense of Sea"(2018). The method selected for this study is qualitative and uses Critical Race Theory (CRT) as its primary theoretical framework. Through the examination of these novels, it becomes evident that while racism manifests differently in Afro-American and Middle Eastern contexts, the underlying themes of prejudice, discrimination, and the struggle for identity and acceptance are universal. Afro-American novel often focus on systemic racism, historical oppression, and the legacy of slavery, while Middle Eastern young adult novels address Islamophobia, cultural stereotypes, and the challenges of cultural assimilation in Western societies. Despite these differences, both sets of novels share a common goal of shedding light on the racial experiences of marginalized communities and advocating for social justice and equality.</p> Naheed Qasim Najia Asrar Zaidi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 148 155 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)14 The CIPP Model-Based Evaluation of English Courses taught in Non-English Degree Programs at Government College University Faisalabad https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/822 <p>The present study aimed to evaluate English courses taught in non-English major degree programs at Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. The study utilized a mixed-methods design for the collection of data using the CIPP Model of evaluation. The sample comprised 63 students of non-English major degree programs and 10 English teachers. The quantitative data was collected from the students using a closed-ended questionnaire having 4 portions related to "course aims and objectives," "course content and materials," "course conduct and teaching-learning process," and "assessment of students' performance." The qualitative data was collected by administering semistructured interviews with English teachers. Drawing on Stufflebeam’s (1971) CIPP (Context, Input, Process, and Product) model of evaluation, the analysis of the data was carried out. The results highlighted strong areas of courses along with those that required improvement to provide students with a more efficient and pertinent English language learning experience. The study has implications for the researchers, syllabus designers, teachers, and students of non-English major degree programs learning English.</p> Shepherd Masood Akhtar Muhammad Amir Abbas Hafiz Muhammad Qasim Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 156 171 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)15 Female Teachers’ Performance Working in Government Girls and Boys Primary and Elementary Schools: A Comparative Study https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/823 <p>Primary education is the foundation of learning and discovery, igniting curiosity and equipping children with the essential skills to navigate the world. In this stage, teachers unlock children's potential and transform them into effective individuals in the future. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of female instructors in schools for girls with schools for boys. The study utilized a quantitative research approach and employed a closed-ended questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale to deliver the survey. The research design followed in this paper was casual comparative. A sample of 327 female elementary teachers (174 from schools for girls and 153 from schools for boys) and 400 primary/elementary grade children (200 from each group) were chosen using the stratified proportional sampling approach. The results showed a significant difference in female teachers' performance between elementary schools for boys and girls, with female instructors performing better in the latter. Based on the results, the authors suggest that only female teachers should be hired for schools catering to females.</p> Nazneen Anwar Muhammad Saeed Zainab Qamar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 172 183 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)16 Investigating the Impact of Video Dubbing Techniques on English Speaking Skills https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/831 <p>The acceptance of innovative teaching techniques by ESL (English as a Second Language) learners is a crucial element of language education. The purpose of this single-group quasiexperimental study was to investigate the efficacy of video dubbing techniques on the speaking skills of ESL learners and to explore their perceptions after taking part in the intervention. For the second phase of the study, the researcher developed a closed-ended questionnaire with 27 items with guidance from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis,1989). The study produced quantifiable data through the use of a quasi-experiment and questionnaire, which were analysed using SPSS (Version, 26). The findings revealed that video dubbing techniques significantly enhance the speaking skills of ESL learners. In addition, a significant proportion of ESL learners showed positive attitudes towards the acceptance of video dubbing techniques in the language classroom. The study has implications for technology enhanced language learning in the present era</p> Farah Zaib Shahid Nawaz Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 184 200 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)17 A Genre Analysis of Strategies adopted by Pakistani Graduates in Job Application Letters https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/835 <p>The genre of job application letters is currently gaining attention in the field, with limited research in the context of Pakistan. The primary objective of this study was to examine the tactics utilized by graduates from Pakistan in their letters of employment application. The study employed a mixed methods technique to examine the frequency of moves as identified in Bhatia's (1993) model. A sample of ten job application letters was obtained from recent graduates of Government College University Faisalabad using the technique of convenient sampling. The findings of the analysis indicate that a significant proportion of the participants employed a majority of the strategies outlined in Bhatia's model. These strategies encompassed Establishing Credentials, Introducing the Candidature, Enclosing Documents, Soliciting Responses, and Ending Politely. Nevertheless, several observations were made. The majority of participants utilized incentives. This study emphasizes the need to comprehend fundamental communicative strategies to compose job application letters that are impactful.</p> Muhammad Anees Sattar Sehrish Khurshid Zarmina Anwaar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 8 2 201 212 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)18 The Homing of Diaspora and Relational Positioning in Gooneratne’s A Change of Skies https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/837 <p>This paper studies Gooneratne’s A change of Skies from diasporic perspective. Globalization, colonization and global flow of labour have led people to shift to different parts of the world. This dispersion from the homeland and re-rootedness in the diaspora space is a complex phenomenon. It involves intersection of multiple spatio-temporal and personal factors that shape and reshape the diasporic subjects. Keeping this in view, the selected novel reflects upon the diasporic journey of a young Sri-Lankan couple who shifts to Australia initially for a period of five years but later on decides to reside there permanently. Bharat and Navaranjini’s experiences as immigrants in the host country and their struggle for homing of diaspora are representative of the efforts of all the immigrants who shift abroad for some reason or the other. Brah’s notions of diaspora journey, the formation of the diasporas, relational positioning , the homing of diaspora and Berry’s ideas related to plural societies and acculturation strategies have been used as theoretical framework for this research. The study is qualitative in nature and uses Belsey’s textual analysis as a method to interpret the selected text. The paper concludes that though the immigrants are treated differently on the basis of relational positioning in the host country, making diaspora composite formation due to distinctive historical experiences and multiple modalities of race, gender, class, religion, generation and language, they negotiate these differences and finally succeed in their efforts of homing diaspora space.</p> Saddaf Rashid Mazhar Hayat Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-02 2024-04-02 8 2 213 225 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)19 Socio-political Commentary in Bina Shah’s Novel “A Season for Martyrs” https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/839 <p>The current study examined the worst condition of Pakistani people under the influence of Americans and Britishers in early 19th century in Bina Shah’s novel “A Season for martyrs”. New-Historicism as a theoretical framework applied to this study to depict and show the history of Pakistan in general and Sindh specifically. It comprehended the work through its historical context and knows intellectual as well as cultural history of that particular era of 19th century in this piece of literary work, readers came to know that how Pakistani people were suppressed, depressed and living under the influence of white men. On the other hand, how the beauty of Pakistan and Sindh is depicted in this novel. Bina Shah, a Pakistani English writer deals with issues such as: gender discrimination, gender inequality, and women education. She portrayed the historical realities of Pakistani society and the Sindhi rulers like Talpurs, especially. She showed the myth of Pakistani society with the real historical era of 2007. She not only portrayed the psyche of Pakistani Politics but also the conspiracies of western powers behind its manipulation. Therefore, this paper displayed the historical background of Pakistan’s society with respect to socio-political perspectives.</p> Irfan Ali Abro Ali Raza Chhalgri Baloch Sadaf Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-02 2024-04-02 8 2 226 239 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)20 Eco-Linguistic Analysis of Flood Representations in Selected Print Media: A Case of Climate Change Semiotics https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/840 <p>This study investigated the socio-linguistic dimensions of flood semiotics and perceptions of climate change within Pakistani print media. The objective of the study was to contribute to a deeper understanding of how floods and climate change are portrayed and perceived in Pakistani media discourse, with implications for enhancing media awareness. The methodology employed was a qualitative approach grounded in eco-linguistic perspectives and guided by a comprehensive theoretical framework of Barthes and Kress and van Leeuwen encompassing semiotics, visual semiotics, rhetoric of image, and eco-linguistics. Analyzing images from Time Magazine depicting floods in Pakistan through semiotic analysis inspired by scholars such as Roland Barthes and Kress and van Leeuwen, the research uncovers social representations, effects of climate change, and linguistic strategies employed in media coverage. The findings revealed themes including devastation, emotional messaging, resilience, realism, and authenticity in the portrayal of Pakistani floods, offering insights into socio-cultural representations and perceptions of climate change. The study's implications extend to recommendations for enhancing media awareness and responsibility, improving journalist training, promoting diverse representation, and encouraging collaboration with environmental experts, advocating for continued research and global collaboration to foster a deeper understanding of climate change communication in the media.</p> Ansa Habib Fatima Tuz Zahra Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-03 2024-04-03 8 2 240 251 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)21 Pedagogical Turns in Teaching Shakespearean Studies: A Theoretical Retrospective https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/841 <p>The paper is a retrospective of pedagogical praxis regarding the perception and reception of Shakespearean texts in a Pakistani English Literature classroom. We are positing a consideration of these moments from within our current positionality in a Higher Education Institution, as well as within the debate on the value and role of Shakespearean Texts in the 21st Century. The paper documents the pedagogical and critical theoretical perspectives as a way of historically tracing out the necessity for an interdisciplinary English department to allow for new interpretive frames through the consideration of genre, culture, form and adaptations. By understanding the evolving pedagogical and theoretical turns in the study and teaching of Shakespearean texts, we can not only the de-mythologize Shakespeare, but also promote a more critically reflexive pedagogical practice highlighting the role of Humanities through the use of adaptations, popular culture materials, and performance based classroom praxis.</p> Zainab Younus Hareem Zafar Khattak Farrah Ansari Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-03 2024-04-03 8 2 252 263 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)22 Assessing the Essence: An Appraisal Analysis of English Translations of Saraiki Short Stories https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/845 <p>The present study aimed to explicate the loss of essence in the English versions of Saraiki short stories. Source language (SL) may lose its essence during the translation process when meanings are rendered from one language (SL) to the target language (TL). This study employed a qualitative design for the investigation of the loss of meanings in English versions of Saraiki short stories. The extracts from both English and Saraiki texts of the two short stories namely, “پانی کا‏‏ئناں پیساں” and "اندرلیکھ دا سیکھ" and their translations in the English language “Now, I Won’t Drink Water” and “The Hell Awakes” were selected as sample of for the analysis using the technique of purposive sampling. Drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics, particularly Appraisal Theory (Martin &amp; White, 2005), the sample extracts were analyzed to examine the aspects of attitude, graduation, and engagement. Then, the significance of certain aspects of loss of meaning was highlighted after comparing the findings. The results of the study revealed that the target texts manifested loss of meanings suggesting socio-cultural environment and subjectivity as important factors influencing translations.</p> Aamir Nazeer Muhammad Javed Iqbal Hafiz Muhammad Qasim Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-06 2024-04-06 8 2 264 276 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)23 Grammatical Error Analysis of Postgraduate Theses in Natural Sciences https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/848 <p>This aim of the study is to identify the grammatical errors made by Natural Sciences Postgraduate students in their theses which were classified in terms of ‘surface taxonomy’ introduced by Ellis &amp; Barkhuizen (2005) i.e, ‘omission’, ‘addition’, ‘misformation’ and ‘misordering’. In this regard, data was collected from the University library in relation to Departments of Zoology, Botany, Physics and Chemistry. Four theses from each department were selected and total sample was comprised of sixteen theses. And then data was qualitatively analyzed. Findings revealed that mostly errors were observed in ‘omission’ category, which were 50.25% collectively and least errors were regarding ‘misordering’. Whereas, the ‘misformation’ category contains 34.55% errors and ‘addition’ category contains 14.02% errors. It shows the students don’t have sufficient competency in English grammar to present their thoughts in their theses. This study will be beneficial for the stakeholders. ESP writing courses, workshops and trainings are suggested to improve their writing skills.</p> Arifa Fiaz Iram Rubab Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 8 2 277 285 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)24 The Discursive Construction of Identity in Camus’ The Stranger: An Analytical Study https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/849 <p>Albert Camus's The Stranger is an influential work of existential philosophy. The novel constructs themes of values, meanings, and individual freedom. Understanding the novel's construction of identity can help to understand the broader philosophical implications of Existentialism. Existentialism is a philosophical movement that puts strong emphasis on the notion that people are free and identify their purpose in life and own values. Existentialism rejects the idea of the supernatural in figuring out what makes a human (essence) (Macharia, 2022). This research uses Fairclough's critical discourse analysis approach, which helps researchers to uncover the meaning and inherent ideologies existing in the Novel under study. The researchers endeavor to reveal the complex layers of ideology and meaning present in the selected excerpts of The Stranger. The novel is open for future scholars to explore various research gaps, including stylistic analysis, psychoanalysis, and postcolonial perspectives for diving deep into the implicit meaning of the novel.</p> Ahmad Ali Khan Imran Ali Khan Muhammad Ramzan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 8 2 286 292 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)25 Analyzing the Impact of English Dominance on Urdu Language Pedagogy in Pakistani Universities https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/850 <p>The research aims to investigate the absence of Urdu linguistic identity in Pakistani universities at BS level. For this study the research objectives were; to investigate the causes behind the losing identity of the Urdu language and identify the key elements contributing to this phenomenon, to examine the underlying causes of societal confusion, to investigate the impact of English language interruption into Urdu, to determine the language preference in educational settings among individuals, to assess whether there is a difference in the use of Urdu and English languages between private and public institutions. Pakistan is a country with a rich linguistic heritage where Urdu serves as the national language. English, recognized for its global significance, has increasingly become a preferred medium of instruction in higher education. This trend raises concerns about the potential sidelining of Urdu, not just as a language of instruction but also in terms of its cultural significance and identity within Pakistan. The study used a quantitative research method. The research design was employed cross-sectional study. The findings of this research demonstrate that language plays a significant role in expressing an individual's personal or social identity, serving as a distinct characteristic for identifying individuals. Furthermore, it has been investigated that the English language is exerting an influence on Pakistani languages. Upon acquiring proficiency in the English language, an individual's view of their own ability, conversational style, and value systems may experience certain alterations. The English Language has given rise to the problem of code-mixing in the everyday communication of the public in Pakistan due to the strong emphasis placed on social status and the need to present oneself as educated.</p> Alamgir Mirza Sidra Hafeez Aiman Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 8 2 293 306 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)26 Exploring the Themes in Vishal Bhardwaj's Trilogy: A Deeper Look at Shakespearean Influences https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/851 <p>This study aims to dissect how Bhardwaj's trilogy (Maqbool, Omkara, and Haider) reflects Shakespearean themes while weaving in contemporary Indian social issues. Vishal Bhardwaj's celebrated trilogy reimagines Shakespeare's tragedies in modern India. This study delves into how these adaptations retain core themes while reflecting social issues like caste, corruption, and political conflict.This study is qualitative in nature. Textual and Cinematic analysis have been conducted and data has been taken from primary and secondary sources. Bhardwaj's films transplant Shakespeare's tragedies into the underbelly of contemporary India (mafia, politics, and insurgency). Shakespearean themes like ambition, betrayal, and revenge form the core, but they're colored by social hierarchy, corruption, and political turmoil. The study reveals a profound integration of Shakespearean themes into Vishal Bhardwaj's trilogy, transcending cultural boundaries to resonate deeply within the Indian context. Through nuanced exploration, it uncovers themes of power dynamics, betrayal, and human complexity, showcasing how Bhardwaj skillfully adapts these timeless elements to reflect contemporary societal issues. The results underscore the enduring relevance and universal appeal of Shakespeare's works, as interpreted through the lens of Indian cinema.</p> Nosheen Jaffar Lubna Ali Mohammed Muhammad Saleem Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 8 2 307 314 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)27 Content Analysis of Ahmet T. Kuru’s Passive and Assertive Secularism: Historical Conditions, Ideological Struggles and State Policies towards Religion https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/852 <p>This research paper is about the content analysis of Ahmet T. Kuru’s article, Passive and Assertive Secularism: Historical Conditions, Ideological Struggles and State Policies Toward Religion. The research is based on the relative perspectives of religion, secularism, and other like concepts and their underpinnings at international levels. The interplay of religion and secularism has always been the talk of the town owing to the sensitivity of the matter. It has been a traditional debate that ideological struggles and state policies must be separated or integrated. The traditional fight between state and the church is almost the same as Kuru describes in his article. He looks more scientific in his explanation and specify the state-church fight with passive and assertive secularism in different countries. It is interesting piece for brain storming but lacks few research gaps that we are going to fill in this content analysis. We may say that our knowledge gap is different because of living in different parts of the world and the perspectives change everything in social sciences. Different countries adopt varied policies according to their internal circumstances. While indulging in the content analysis, a qualitative approach and descriptive method are used. It provides a critical analysis of the article with an oriental perspective. In conclusion we analyzed that it is elite capture and monopoly that determine every aspect of human life. Therefore, people living in the developing world have different perspectives of life and their ideology as compared to the people of the developed part of the world think about religion and their ideologies.</p> Mahnoor Mansoor Rehana Saeed Hashmi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 8 2 315 324 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II)28