Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review (PLHR) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. PLHR is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes <strong>Quarterly</strong>. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> en-US Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2708-6453 The Psycho-Somesthetic Sense and Self: A Freudian Analysis of Edger Allen Poe’s Short Stories The Black Cat And Tell-Tale Heart <p>Somesthesis sense means a system of multiple receptors and neural pathways to indicate distinctive bodily and mental stimulations’. The present research analyses the data collected from Edger Allen Poe’s Short Stories The Black Cat and Tell-Tale Heart. The data has been analysed by applying Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of phobias. The theory of phobia provides a synthesis and a framework to help identify the orientation of fear and pain instigated by external factors. It focuses on somesthetic sense at function to unveil the psychic binary impulses. It finds that the Protagonists of Poe’s stories The Black Cat, and Tell-Tale Heart undergo a somesthetic shift of individual instinct to psychic cathexes which is an immediate pleasure principle to eradicate and experience pain and fear. This study helps to decode multiple psychic paradigms of the human psyche at function. The study signifies that the psychic cathexes with relevance to the somesthetic orientation of the human conscious and unconscious state. The findings divulge Poe’s portrayal of the psychological conflict of somesthetic sense and self through psychic cathexes.</p> Safia Siddiqui Sumaira Anum Hafeez Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 7 2 01 11 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)01 A Hermeneutic Comparative Analysis of Sufi Verse Narrativities: Contriving Meaning through Metaphorization and Personification in the Ghazals of Abadi and Niaz <p>This study interprets Sufi narratives and perceptions of the participants to evaluate how metaphors and personifications are applied to add meaning to the text. The ghazals by Shad Azeem Abadi (Trans. Abadi, 2008) and Hazrat Shah Niaz (Trans. Sag-e-dar-Niaz, 2009), were selected to hold a dialogue between what was said and what was understood. For this purpose, the three tenets of the Hermeneutic approach i.e. hermeneutic situation, hermeneutic circle, and fusion of horizons, proposed by Gadamer (1994) were taken as a theoretical framework. The hermeneutic study explored the use of metaphors and personifications to unveil the hidden meaning of Sufi Kalaams. Twenty perceptions, ten for each ghazal, were selected for hermeneutic analysis of the ‘fusion of horizons’ to trail the influence of metaphors and personifications upon listeners apart from the musical form of these ghazals. Nevertheless, the poetic text has aroused personal stories and novel perspectives for some listeners as hermeneutics provides expediency to others’ perspectives, and whenever a text is interpreted something personally important emerges out of the text whenever the reader interprets it.</p> Tabassum Saba Bushra Siddiqui Shama Iqbal Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 7 2 12 25 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)02 The Vernacular Literary Resistance in Colonial Punjab and Colonial Balochistan 1880-1925: A Comparative and Historical Analysis <p>This study explores the Balochi-Brahui vernacular literary resistance in comparison with the Punjabi language from a historical perspective, which has never been highlighted before. Vernacular literary resistance during British colonial rule triggered numerous physical resistance movements in different parts of the Raj, from British Balochistan in the west to the colonized Punjab in the east. The movement in Punjab was designed to protect the Punjabi language against the forceful imposition of Urdu along with English, while in Balochistan the literary movement had its agenda to protect local Baloch people from the Christian missionaries who were busy propagating Christianity by using both Balochi and Brahui languages. The present study is based on a mixed method of analytical and explanatory methods, and it has endeavored that all the sources are critically analyzed. The Vernacular Literary resistance of both regions powerfully affected British colonial state formation with its full zeal and enthusiasm.</p> Naveed Razzaq Rabia Islam Waheed Razzaq Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 7 2 26 33 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)03 Four Lenses of Reflection: Experiences of Teacher Educators <p>To have in-depth exploration of the experiences of teacher educators’ about four lenses of reflection. In Pakistani context there is dearth of reflection and reflective practice studies about teacher educators. So it underscores the need for reflection studies in Pakistan. The methodological approach chosen for this study was Narrative. Participants were selected purposively. Data was collected through narrative interviews. For data analysis narratives of the participants were constructed and then themes were identified. The study explored that the teacher educators use four lenses of reflection in their professional lives. They follow their favorite teachers, take feedback from students, share their experiences with colleagues but they narrated that their study habits specifically for reflection purpose are not very good. Study also revealed that teacher educators are sometimes reluctant to use reflective practices because of less supportive organizational culture and because of lack of mutual trust. It is recommended in the light of findings of study that here is need to train the administration and teachers that how reflective practices can be used productively.</p> Tanzeela Akram Shumaila Mehmood Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 7 2 34 46 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)04 An Analysis of the Relationship between Immigration and the Development of Resource-based Cities in China - Centered on Daqing and Yichun in Heilongjiang Province <p>The main objective of this article is to understand the restoration of Northeast China and the founding of the People's Republic of China, with the needs of national construction and economic development, the rich natural resources in Heilongjiang have been rapidly developed. At the same time, a large number of immigrants have poured into the local mining and forest areas due to the attraction of natural resources. When immigrants bring the advanced equipment and cultural customs of the place of immigration into the local area, they also bring a new look to the local development, rapid economic growth and continuous improvement of various infrastructure. Qualitative method is used to accomplish this research study. Through the exploration of the construction, development and migration relationship of the two typical resource-based cities, Daqing and Yichun, we can fully summarize the objective laws of the development of resource-based cities, which can provide theoretical value and practical significance for the revitalization of the old industrial base in Northeast China, the transformation of resource-based cities and the attraction of talents.</p> Zhang Tong Maqbool Awan Hao Qingyun Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 7 2 47 57 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)05 Appearance Related Commentary, Self-Objectification and Psychological Well-being in Young Adults <p>Appearance related comments and self-objectification seem very dominant in media and real life. Appearance related comments and self-objectification definitely influence psychological wellbeing of individuals especially adolescents and Young adults. The present study was designed to study the relationship between appearance-related comments, self-objectification and psychological well-being in young adults. Purposive sampling strategy was used to select a sample of students (N=120) from different colleges and universities of Lahore. A correlational research design with purposive sampling has been used. Physical Appearance Scale i.e., Verbal commentary on physical appearance scale (Herbozo &amp; Thompson, 2006), Self -Objectification Questionnaire (Noll &amp; Fredickson, 1998), and Psychological Well-being Scale (Ryff, 2007) are used as assessment measures. Results of the research indicated that verbal commentary on physical appearance, self-objectification and psychological well-being are significantly related to each other. Self-objectification is a significant predictor of psychological wellbeing in young adults. There are no significant gender differences in verbal commentary on physical appearance, self-objectification and psychological well-being in young adults.</p> Shumaila Nasreen Hajra Fareed Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 7 2 58 67 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)06 Muslim Women’s Agency and South Asian Literature: A Postcolonial Feminist Analysis of Purdah and Polygamy: Life in an Indian Muslim Household by Iqbalunnisa Hussain <p>The study Muslim Women’s Agency and South Asian Literature aims at exploring the aspects of Muslim women’s oppression and seclusion in the life of zenana with reference to the selected work Purdah and Polygamy: Life in an Indian Muslim Household (1944) by Iqbalunnisa Hussain. Hussain is celebrated as the pioneer of Muslim Anglophone literature in South Asia. She is considered as the first female writer to stand against the oppressive practices like polygamy and seclusion of Indian Muslim women. Women authors and their literature have played a vital role in reflecting the oppressive states of women at the hands of insensitive conventional and patriarchal cultural values of colonial India. The selected novel is examined through Spivak’s perspective of voiceless subaltern. The study concludes that the patriarchal hegemony and subjugation are the factors, preventing Muslim women’s agency.</p> Munnzza Noreen Muhammad Asif Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 7 2 68 77 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)07 Investigating Factors Causing English Writing Anxiety among Undergraduate Students of Balochistan, Pakistan <p>One of the primary skills of language is writing which has a significant impact on students’ academic achievement, particularly in Pakistani education system. Students experience various levels and types of anxiety while writing an academic English essay, which could affect their performance negatively. In order to determine the reasons of writing anxiety of SBKWU’s BS students, the current research study focuses on examining the types and levels of writing anxiety among Baluchistan undergraduate students. This quantitative study’s theoretical foundation was the Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope (1986) hypothesis of language anxiety. The participants of the study included 100 SBK Women University Quetta undergraduate students. Two groups—50 students randomly chosen from BS first semester and 50 students from BS eighth semester at University in Balochistan, Pakistan. The questionnaire used was modified from (Cheng, 2004) and the data was evaluated through SPSS. The study’s findings demonstrated that first-semester students experience greater anxiety, heart palpitations, mental blankness, and shivering when they start writing. There was a fear of receiving bad grade, panic attacks, avoidance of situations, and their thoughts became confused when they wrote in English.</p> Shehla Anwer Kurd Saima Hassan Aqsa Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 7 2 78 85 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)08 Colors as Gender Markers: A corpus based Critical Study of English Novels by Pakistani Female Writers <p>The present study aims at investigating a discursive role of colors in the construction of gender identities in the selected corpus of English novels by Pakistani females. It focuses on understanding the mechanism which contributes to construe, challenge or reinforce the traditional gender images in Pakistani society. A corpus-based critical approach was employed to demystify the constructed gender structures in the web of texts selected for this study. The research finds a significant relationship between color association and the constitution of gender images. Some colors are presented as permanent features of one gender which cannot be seen otherwise. Some bright colors like pink, yellow, purple, green, orange have been predominantly associated with females and sober and decent ones like brown, gray, khaki have been associated with males. These color connotations are employed to create and reinforce gender identities of the characters, their traits, and their behaviors. The whole process of construction is executed by employing language as discursive and strategic tool in a specific sociopolitical context of Pakistani society.</p> Uzma Asmat Kanwal Zahra Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 7 2 86 103 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)09 Parental Perceptions about Further Education for their Children with Hearing Impairment <p>This research aimed to explore the perception of the parents of children with hearing impairment for further education. Further Education covers education and training after secondary level education. The researcher takes this term as higher education and vocational training. Keeping in view limited career opportunities for these students. Parents are confused to select the career for their special children. That's why it is very important to know about their perception regarding future concerns of their children. In this quantitative research, the descriptive methodology was used for survey by using self-made questionnaire. 324 parents have participated for research. Response of a majority of the parents was positive towards Vocational Training of their children for the better social and economic adjustments. This research highlighted a new direction for arranging and starting vocational and skill-oriented programs for hearing impaired students and such initiatives will encourage them to live an independent life.</p> Ghazala Ishrat Faisal Anis Iram Rafaqat Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 7 2 104 126 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)10 Effect of Inquiry Method on Scientific Inquiry Skills of Elementary School Students <p>The research investigated the effect of inquiry method on scientific inquiry skills of elementary school students. The current teaching learning process in schools seems more focused on delivering knowledge to learners instead of development of inquiry skills. Therefore, researcher conducted this research on 8th graders using experiment design. An achievement test consisting MCQs and short questions was self-developed for data collection. Results through data analysis revealed that significant difference of enquiry skills is present between the students taught through enquiry based teaching and traditional teaching method while controlling for their pretest mean scores on inquiry skills. Moreover, the similarly results are observed through separate data analysis of male and female 8th graders. The study implies that the teachers may use inquiry based teaching method for teaching science to 8th graders instead of traditional lecture method.</p> Ahmad Farooq Mobeen Ul Islam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 7 2 127 139 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)11 Relationship between Work-Family Conflict and Life Satisfaction in Secondary Schools of Sargodha <p>The link between Work-Family Conflict (WFC) and Life Satisfaction was examined in a quantitative study of secondary school teachers in Lahore, Pakistan (LS). The researcher hopes that the study might be useful from all viewpoints, including managerial, academic, and theoretical ones. Lahore district served as the population of the study that consisted of 179 boys and 152 girls high schools of Lahore. In Lahore there are 1716 female and 1445 male SSTs. 800 samples were taken from the entire population using a two-stage random sampling technique. With advance permission, Form-WFC and SLS were modified. Pilot testing and expert opinion were used to validate the scale and confirm the validity of the instrument. Pilot testing was done to check the instrument's dependability, and the results show that the instrument is very reliable. Following pilot testing, the instrument underwent the necessary modifications. In the study, correlational research was employed. The information was gathered through a cross-sectional survey. Using SPSS, descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The results of the correlation were significant, indicating that WLB and LS had a moderately positive correlation. SLS generally increases along with WFC when it does. In order to determine the relationship between WLB and SLS, Pearson r was run. The results of the correlation were significant, indicating that WFC and LS had a strong positive correlation. SLS generally increases along with WFC when it does. The conclusions of the correlation coefficients were corroborated by the results of the regression analysis.</p> Rizwan Ahmad Shamim Ullah Sumaira Majeed Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 7 2 140 154 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)12 The Devastation of Feminine Ethos: An Impact of Colonization in "Daira" (The Circle) <p>This study analyze the vicissitudes and evolution in any culture crafts a subterranean hole that leads toward the destruction of social and ethical dogmas at which that culture is erect. This precise work is objectified on the scrutiny of the postcolonial feminine impact that chained the minds of the people living in the subcontinent, through the adoption of “Whites” as a stander of life which is a destruction of women in the chase of freedom in reality. Daira (The circle) is a Pakistani screen adaption of “Moth Smoke” by “Mohsin Hamid”. Eloquent qualitative, point by point methodology is used to cast off the devastation of feminine ethos in “Daira”.The findings of “Daira” are constructed based on nostalgic yearning about the loss of feminine values and deterioration of norms associated with women which takes them far away from themselves. It is dense to find the imperfections but the apprehension of gaffes is the only factor through which women can restore their cultural values even holding their empowerment.</p> Khubaib ur Rehman Tayyaba Yasmin Aniqa Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 7 2 155 161 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)13 Exploring Postmodern Approaches to Jewish Identity in Contemporary Europe through The Finkler Question <p>This research article explores the depiction of Jewish identity in contemporary Europe as presented in Howard Jacobson’s novel, The Finkler Question, using postmodern perspectives on Otherness, specificity, and alterity. By drawing on Jean-Francois Lyotard’s The Postmodern Condition, the article examines the meta-narratives of Jewish identity and how identity is constructed in a fluid, postmodern era. The article critically evaluates Jacobson’s position and whether The Finkler Question posits a postmodern Jewish identity. The article offers insights into the complex and multifaceted nature of Jewish identity in contemporary Europe by analysing the novel's portrayal of Jewish characters and their relationships and examining the broader socio-political context. Ultimately, the article demonstrates how postmodern perspectives can enhance our understanding of this important issue. The analysis shows that The Finkler Question reflects postmodern approaches to identity, with characters navigating complex and often contradictory identities. The novel presents a diverse range of Jewish characters, each with their own unique experiences and relationships to their cultural and religious identity. The article argues that the novel’s focus on cultural rather than religious aspects of Jewish identity is evidence of a postmodern Jewish identity that embraces diversity and multiplicity. The article concludes that postmodern perspectives offer a valuable lens through which to examine Jewish identity in contemporary Europe and that works of literature such as The Finkler Question can provide important insights into this complex issue.</p> Toqeer Ahmed Khurshid Alam Saeed Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 7 2 162 175 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)14 The Shift of Self and Other in Doris Lessing’s The Grass is Singing <p>The topic of identity has been the subject of intense and passionate discussions, with politicians, critics and revolutionaries equally tending to divide the world into opposing groups. In the post-colonial era, this has led to an emphasis on dichotomies such as oppressor-oppressed, colonizer-colonized, master-slave, settler-native, and us-them. Each country seeks to establish its uniqueness by contrasting itself with others, and in doing so, identity is often viewed as something fixed, basic, and unchanging. However, this approach has led to the creation of binary divisions in society and losing of distinctiveness and individuality due to mimicry, ambivalence, and hybridity, and the need to deconstruct and reconstruct subjectivity in what is known as the third space. The relationship between human experience and societal factors in a colonial or postcolonial context is a central theme in postcolonial literature, and it explores issues such as the fluidity of power and position. This paper examines the shift of self and other in postcolonialism through an analysis of Doris Lessing's 20th century South African novel, The Grass is Singing. The novel challenges established dichotomies and demonstrates how the colonized can subvert their subordination. It also reveals the fluidity, vulnerability, and fragile nature of colonial identity by highlighting the shifting positions of those in power and those who are not.</p> Afia Yasin Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 7 2 176 184 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)15 Existential Elements in the Character of the Underground Man <p>The study titled "Existential Elements in the Character of The Underground Man," examines the particular existential elements portrayed by Fyodor Dostoevsky in his work “Notes From Underground”, such as absurdity, alienation, freedom, anxiety, or misery etc. In other words, this article investigates the “Notes From Underground” from an existential standpoint. Under the umbrella of the Qualitative method, the study in hand employed textual analysis of selected excerpts from Notes From Underground. The lenses of existential ideas such as freedom, absurdity, alienation, and anguish are utilized to extend and expend the study topic and objectives. This research critically explores various reasons for the protagonist, for instance, the Underground Man's isolation, absurdity, anxiety, alienation, and freedom amongst others, as well as how these existential features contribute to his sufferings in the novel.</p> Salman Nasir Nasim Gul Aziz Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-21 2023-03-21 7 2 185 195 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)16 Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations: An Overview Before and After 9/11 Incident <p>Historically, Afghanistan and Pakistan are the immediate neighbors with number of common similarities such as religious, cultural, geography, ethnicity and numerous others. Despite these, the relations between both countries never stayed in the cool plate. This study explores that, since the emergence of Taliban in Afghanistan during 1996-2001, there were somehow better relations than the democratic government in Afghanistan. Regional and international players played their role in maintaining as well as somehow destroyed the peace of the region that highlighted number of national and international writers. They key objective of this study is to explore the Pakistan-Afghanistan military, political and social relations and its consequences on both state. This study is based on the analytical approaches and used the primary and secondary sources that explored the number of hidden issues between the both countries. Both countries are suggested to enhance ties through diplomatic ways instead of clashes.</p> Muhammad Asfahan Imran Ali Muhammad Arif Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 7 2 196 206 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)17 Functional Morphology: Patterns Rules Sets for Morphological Parsing of Urdu Regular Verbs <p>Affixation of Urdu regular verbs give multiple patterns providing various verbs, varying in meaning and use regarding aspect and gender following similar root verb. Taking into consideration the pattern variations in verbs the aim of this study was to identify morphological patterns of regular Urdu verbs, whereas objective of this research was to explore morphological patterns of stemming in case of Urdu verbs. A corpus of more than 1500 regular verbs is developed. 16 rules sets were developed following 13 different affixation patterns. Out of which 7 specific rules combinations were designed following these combinations in relation to 1 root verb. According to functional morphology these rules set follow a morphological parser for Natural language processing (NLP). The results are significant to design Urdu database of regular verbs corpus for Urdu NLP. This morphological implementation can be used to develop Urdu data base dealing with Functional Morphology and lexicology while dealing Urdu regular Verb forms.</p> Anam Amin Huma Javed Sidra Haroon Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 7 2 207 216 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)18 Teaching Intercultural Literary Genres in Pakistani Universities: The Undergraduate Students’ Perspective on the Poetry of Rumi and Blake <p>Pakistan is a multicultural country and people are divided across political and religious values. The major objective of this study is to investigate pedagogical relevance of the poetry of Rumi and Blake for culturally diverse undergraduate classes in Pakistani universities in Lahore. The study was based on survey research design. A closed ended questionnaire was developed for data collection from 100 students purposively selected from two universities in Lahore. Findings of the study indicate that intercultural poetry with the theme of Love written by poets like Rumi and Blake needs to be taught at the undergraduate level. The study has implications for students, teachers, and genre based syllabus designers associated with teaching of English Literature in Pakistani universities.</p> Afshan Liaquat Muhammad Aslam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-25 2023-03-25 7 2 217 224 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)19 Exploring Ideology in Intermediate English Textbook: A Case Study of Sindh Textbook Board <p>Textbooks and Ideology have become key areas of study these days. This research focuses on the exploration of ideology in Intermediate English textbook-2 devised by the Sindh Textbook Board Jamshoro and employed by the college education department of Sindh throughout Sindh province of Pakistan. This study is based on a textual and critical discourse analysis of ideological content found in Pakistani English language textbooks. It is crucial to note that these English syllabi are used in colleges that accept the Sindh Textbook Board and use the syllabus of the same boards at the intermediate level. Moreover, the study focuses on whether the textbook contains any elements of prejudice, intolerance, hatred, or discrimination against those who practice other faiths. Examining the ideology-related content in intermediate coursebooks, the research utilizes the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of the Fairclough analytical framework. What kind of ideology is employed in the English textbook, as per the first query? The results suggesting of this study show that there is a mixture of several ideologies in intermediate English book-2 i.e., religious ideology, secular ideology, and most dominantly scientific ideology. The textbook, on the other hand, takes a hateful, biased, discriminatory, and intolerable stance against Hindus. Correspondingly, the results of this study can be beneficial in several ways. The results point to the necessity of creating a new English curriculum with better teaching resources. The curricula authors should go back and reread the books to create a syllabus with more ideologies.</p> Aamir Ali Magsi Tanveer Hussain Mangnejo Muhammad Usman Thaheem Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-26 2023-03-26 7 2 225 238 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)20 A Study of the Activities/Tasks in English Textbooks for Intermediate Classes from Communicative Language Teaching Perspective <p>Textbooks of English are filled with numerous activities for developing different competencies. This study analyzes intermediate English textbooks for Grade 11 &amp; 12 of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Textbook Board, Peshawar for determining the extent of incorporation of Communicative Language Teaching principles (CLT) in the textbooks. The English textbooks for grades 11 &amp; 12 are analyzed to obtain data for the research. For evaluating the textbooks’ activities, a CLT based qualitative framework was adopted. The findings indicated that the textbooks do not incorporate all the principles of CLT. There is no balance among the four skills of language. Listening skill has been completely ignored. The textbooks lack focus on the functional aspects of the use of language in context. Based on the results, recommendations for further research are provided. The study has important implications in terms of modifications and revisions of activities for achieving greater congruency with the tenets of CLT.</p> Muhammad Jamshaid Mansoor Ali Syed Sabih Ul Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 7 2 239 252 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)21 Exploring Errors Treatment Impacts on Undergraduate Learners in English Language Classrooms at Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat <p>The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive understanding about the various impacts of language teachers’ written or oral corrective feedback techniques and strategies on learners’ language learning. This study also investigates learners’ attitudes and perceptions about their teachers’ corrective feedback strategies applied in the classrooms. Using inappropriate approaches in learner errors treatment process can hold back learner language learning performance in the classroom. This study employs mixed method approach by collecting data through questionnaire and interview. Quantitative data is collected from 219 students by using five-point Likert scale questionnaire. To determine the results, descriptive analysis and regression analysis is applied; while qualitative data is analyzed through thematic analysis. Research study concluded that teacher’s attitude and strategies during learner errors treatment process can cast enormous positive or negative impacts on learner language learning. Learners recommended appropriate and well accepted feedback strategies for their better learning in language classrooms.</p> Niaz Rehman Said Imran Mansoor Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 7 2 253 272 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)22 An Exploration of Metafunctions and Binary Oppositions in Pakistani Paintings and Poems <p>Art and poetry go hand in hand to appeal to the senses of the creators and art lovers. The objective of this research was to explore the connection of visual art and poetry and how these forms juxtaposed to create meaning. A collection, Maritime Treasures of Pakistan, featuring art and poetry was selected to be analyzed using the Visual Grammar framework (2006) and in light of Derrida’s (1967/1997) theory of deconstruction, respectively. The analysis showed that Visual Grammar can help us interpret images but using a theoretical perspective for the textual mode can provide us an even better understanding of the connection between the different semiotic modes. As in the analysis we saw that the theory of deconstruction helped us uncover the underlying message behind the poems and together with the analysis of the paintings, the meaning of the multimodal piece as one whole was deduced.</p> Ghalia Gohar Maria Farooq Maan Huma Batool Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-29 2023-03-29 7 2 273 283 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)23 Exploring the Impact of Gamification on Language Learning Performance among Intermediate College Students: The Role of Motivation, Engagement, and Self-Reliance <p>This study examines the effect of gamification on the language learning performance of ESL learners, specifically looking at how gamification can enhance motivation, engagement, and self-reliance. A sample of 178 female intermediate college students completed a questionnaire adapted from a previous study, measuring gamification variables such as motivation, engagement, and self-reliance. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, including regression analysis, were used to analyse the data. Results showed that gamification significantly predicts language learning performance, with motivation, engagement, and self-reliance being important predictors. These findings suggest that gamification can enhance ESL learners’ language learning performance by increasing motivation, engagement, and self-reliance, highlighting the potential benefits of incorporating gamification in ESL instruction. Future recommendations include designing language learning activities that promote self-reliance and increasing motivation and engagement using gamification. Pedagogical implications of this study emphasize the importance of gamification in ESL instruction and its potential to improve language learning performance.</p> Sahib Khatoon Muhammad Usman Thaheem Ume Rubab Shah Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-29 2023-03-29 7 2 284 295 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)24 Misogynic Semiosis in American Fiction: A Critical Perspective on Female Characters’ Dress and Appearance <p>This study attempts to explore whether the attire and appearance of female characters in American fiction is a semiosis of patriarchal power. The sociology of dress and appearance was used as the theoretical stance of this research. Two novels, “Gone with the Wind” and “The Help” were selected using criterion sampling. The selected excerpts from these novels were analyzed by Fairclough’s three-dimensional method of critical discourse analysis grounded in Halliday’s view of language as a semiotic system (1978/2007). Findings from the analysis show that patriarchal values, dominance, misogyny, and the expectation to fulfil feminine norms and socio-economic status are expressed through women's dress. There is also evidence of generic/discursive overlaps which reflect changes in the patriarchal structure of American society, in particular, and by implication in all male-dominated societies in the world including Pakistan. The study has implications for the critical evaluation of ideologies and imagined realities naturalized through literary genres.</p> Sarah Ashher Azeem Alphonce Muhammad Aslam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-29 2023-03-29 7 2 296 308 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)25 Nora vs Candida: A Feminist Analysis of Ibsenite and Shavian Protagonists <p>This study aims to investigate Victorian society’s toxic stereotypes, enslaving gender roles, and subtle patronising behaviours of males towards women through the lens of Nora from Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House (1889) and Candida from G.B. Shaw’s Candida (1894). Moreover, this research compares the different feminist ideologies of Ibsen and Shaw to Nora and Candida’s actions. Victorian women were denied their social, economic, political, religious, or even moral rights. Ibsen and Shaw, through their feminist heroines, strived to expose society’s injustice towards the female sex. The methodology is a comparative, descriptive analysis of the selected plays by employing the theory of feminism. The study succeeds in highlighting the oppressive designs used against women by the male-dominant patriarchy and distinguishing the unique feminist approaches of Ibsen and Shaw.</p> Muhammad Hassaan Masood Aaliya Batool Hassan Raza Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 7 2 309 317 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)26 The Role of Henchard’s Character in Loss and Profit of His Business in the Novel the Mayor of Casterbridge <p>To identify and explore the role of Michael Henchard’s character in loss and profit of his business in Thomas Hardy’s novel The Mayor of Casterbrdige, a qualitative research method is used in this study. The novel portrays the protagonist’s journey from being a poor helpless hay trusser to a successful mayor and businessman of the town who finally ends up meeting a miserably tragic downfall at the end of the plot. The article discusses whether Henchard was driven by fate to the misery or was that his own decision making ability (character) that was flawed. The text of the novel is used as primary source of data collection. Many other research articles, journals and books served as secondary sources for data collection. After a diligent analysis of the textual data the researcher reaches to the conclusion that the novel is a great presentation of indeterminism. Through the protagonist’s character Hardy has depicted the philosophy of ‘Character is Fate’ in a very artistic and realistic manner. As per findings of the study it is strongly recommended that other scholars may work on the role of fate in Hardy’s characters, the impacts of genetics on his characters’ lives and his profound philosophy of pessimism and nihilism are yet to be discovered areas where further research could easily be carried out.</p> Muhammad Afaq Maheen Shah Nasim Gul Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 7 2 318 327 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)27 Impact of Customer Relationship Management on the Performance of Hotels of Quetta <p>The paper examines the impact of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) on the performance of hotels of Quetta City. It is critical for businesses to understand the importance of CRM for sustainability and acquiring a competitive advantage in the industry. The hospitality industry is constantly focusing on CRM to properly understand the needs of their customers so that they can enhance their services. The paper uses a quantitative research approach by collecting information from customers of hotels of Quetta about their performance. A sample of 100 customers was used for the study with the help of a questionnaire. The data was collected and analyzed be done to assess the impact of CRM on Firm Performance of the hotels. It was determined that technology-based CRM is the most critical factor for improving performance, secondly customer orientation and finally knowledge management should be focused if hotels want to improve their financial performance in Quetta. The study helps the hotels of Quetta to assess their current firm’s performance and understand the important strategic changes they will need to further improve their performance to satisfy their customers.</p> Zia Ur Rehman Mir Sadaat Baloch Safi Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-01 2023-04-01 7 2 327 336 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)28 A Nugatory Struggle for Being: An Exploration of Existentialistic Rudiments in Soul Mountain (Ling Shan) <p>The study investigates nugatory struggle of the individuals in the fiction Soul Mountain by Gao Xingjian. The novel is an elaboration of what the real life has to offer in this world. A man is the being with the ability to make a choice and he freely decides about his life. The irony of this freedom is that no other one can be blamed for the actions, committed by an individual. The burden of being free and responsible for the decisions leads towards the condition, we call existential crises. Existentialistic philosophers sum this up as; the man is condemned to be free. With the declaration of his freedom, the protagonist rejects the patterned and the governed systems by the different institutions either the sociocultural or the political one and he lives the life according to his own drawn structure. In his entire life, the protagonist struggles to attain a significant meaning of life. This dissertation explores the existential angst, estrangement and strife in Soul Mountain that leads the narrator to an absurdist realm, meaninglessness and chaos. The inability to comprehend life and its meaning both produce anxiety and the craving for the meaning remains a thirst. The research tracks down the struggling phenomenon of the protagonist in the fiction Soul Mountain in the light of existentialistic interpretation of the term.</p> Nur Ul Ain Mughees Khan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-03 2023-04-03 7 2 337 345 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)29 Marginalization of Women In Patriarchy: A Cultural Materialistic Critique of Kamal’s Unmarriageable and Austen’s Pride and Prejudice <p>Matrimonial issues of the females have been the core issue of the human life since the history of humans. Unmarriageable (2019) by Soniah Kamal and Jane Austen‘s Pride and Prejudice in the context of Pakistani culture deal with the core issue of marriages being concerned with the society and the capitalism. Cultural Materialism (CM) appeals to explore the issues of the society where the society is being emerged with the materialistic thoughts. The current qualitative study explores the matrimonial issues of 19th and 21st century of the modern age. It explores both novels comparatively and differentiates the text of these novels with respect to the cultural materialism. The results of the study describe that the matrimonial issues are there in both societies and also the mothers of the daughters are very keen in making marriages of the daughters while the father always remain in keen of the finance.</p> Shagufta Ramzan Gulzaib Nusrat Samina Arif Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-05 2023-04-05 7 2 346 354 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)30 Apology Strategies in Hindko: An Explanatory Intercultural Research <p>Intercultural and cross-cultural studies play a significant role in understanding the influence of culture on communication, especially pragmatic communication in any language. The current study aims to explore the phenomenon of apology strategies used by Hindko speakers enrolled at the University of Kotli and the University of AJK Muzaffarabad. The data were collected through a Discourse Completion Test from 10 speakers of Hindko enrolled in various departments at the University of Kotli and UAJK Muzaffarabad. The Turkish language data were adopted as a reference from a research study conducted by Cetinavei. The Hindko data were analyzed using the theoretical framework presented by Blum-Kulka and others The findings of the research show that Hindko speakers show variation in using apology strategies. Hindko speakers use more direct explanation and denial strategies, whereas Turkish speakers use indirect responsibility and explanation strategies. Moreover, the analysis also shows that Hindko speakers use forgiveness strategies more frequently than other strategies like intensifying or taking responsibility.</p> Shahid Hussain Mir Saman Waheed Ameer Sultan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-05 2023-04-05 7 2 355 369 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)31 Historical and Theoretical Perspectives of English for Specific Purposes: An Overview <p>This research article investigates the historical and theoretical developments of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) over the past six decades. Early years of ESP research primarily focused on text-based counts before gradually transitioning to a greater emphasis on rhetorical devices. The following decades saw the introduction of central concepts such as NEEDS assessment, linguistic devices and their rhetorical purposes, genre, and rhetorical move, which broadened the scope of ESP research. In the modern age of ESP, corpus studies and genre emerged as central concepts in the field. This led to the emergence of intercultural rhetoric as a key area of research, and the development of genre-based approaches in ESP. The use of corpus studies allowed for a data-driven approach to language analysis, enabling the identification and analysis of linguistic features and patterns of specific genres. Overall, this article provides an in-depth overview of the historical and theoretical perspectives that have influenced ESP research. The analysis highlights the evolution of central concepts such as genre, rhetorical move, and intercultural rhetoric, and emphasizes the significance of corpus studies in ESP research. It provides insights on the historical and theoretical development of ESP.</p> Shahid Hussain Shahid Muhammad Arif Khan Muhammad Ishtiaq Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-05 2023-04-05 7 2 370 383 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)32 Analytical Review of the Slogans of Aurat March expressing the Right of Freedom <p>The aim of this research paper is to analyze the slogans of Aurat March 2020 with right of freedom of expression. The right of freedom of expression is a fundamental right guaranteed in the constitution of Pakistan 1973. This is a quantitative analysis conducted with the help of UAM Corpus Software to perform SFL analysis of the slogans. Researchers make use of Halliday's ideational meta-functions to analyze the slogans. The data has been collected through random sampling from social media and web sources. SFL transitivity analysis helps researchers keep their research relatively objective and unbiased. In depth analysis of all the processes has been conducted in the research. Results indicate that the Material Process has been used the most in the slogans which indicate actions. Relational process is also quite prominent in the results which show that slogans were meant to create a comparison between two entities. This paper paves the way for the researchers to look into PDA through the linguistic lens of SFL. Women rights is a burning issue in Pakistan which has been taken up by the marchers and their slogans have been criticized by the media and social media. This paper aims to explore the objective reason for that.</p> Huma Hassan Maria Riaz Muhammad Hasan Zia Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 7 2 384 400 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)33 Dynamics of Reminiscence and the Pilgrimage of Migration in Amin Maalouf’s Rock of Tanios <p>The article explores the literal and metaphorical signification of home for migrants. Rock of Tanios, a migrant narrative by the Lebanese-French migrant writer Amin Maalouf, is deconstructively analyzed. Migration, in its passage, brings about a confrontation with the traditionally established notions of home, homeland, identity, and the subsequent transformation. The complex relationship between personal and political experiences is underscored to prove that in the evaluation of cultural production at the locus of migration the ideological standpoints on nationalism and nation cannot be easily segregated. For a migrant, home is no longer a unification of experience referring to a nation-state, an architectural construction or a sense of belonging. When memory plays the part of a mediator and makes the present interact with the past, the notion of home is formed, and for those who have to part from their traditional birthplaces, ‘home’ is no longer something fixed but fluid.</p> Saima Bashir Sohail Ahmad Saeed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-08 2023-04-08 7 2 401 409 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)34 Perceptions Regarding E-Learning: A Study of University Students <p>Education is a core element for development of a nation and it helps the people to build tolerance and development of intellect. E-learning is one of the modern toll where instruction can be transferred through modern technology from any institute to the students. The intent of the research was to investigate the perceptions of students about e-learning. Public sector universities of district Lahore included the population of the study. Sample was drawn from the population through random sampling. The sample was comprised of 503 students enrolled in public sector universities of the district Lahore. Cross-sectional survey designed was used to collect the data. Researcher developed the instrument after reviewing the in-depth literature which initially comprised of 44 items. The instrument was validated through expert opinion and it was modified in the light of the expert opinion and the final version of instrument included 39 items. The reliability of the instrument was also ensured and its value was .89. The findings of the research shows that students perceive positively to e-learning. Furthermore, it is also explored that the gender has no effect on the perceptions of the students regarding e-learning. Use of different kind of devices has a significant effect on accessibility utilization, functionality, communication and learning scales of e-learning.</p> Sumaira Majeed Rizwan Ahmad Farzana Yousaf Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-08 2023-04-08 7 2 410 418 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)35 Romance, Power, and Female Oppression: A Textual Analysis of Shah Nawaz’s The Heart Divided <p>This study is based on a Pakistani Anglophone partition novel, Mumtaz Shah Nawaz’s The Heart Divided (1957). This research explores love and romance concerning power and female oppression in the above-mentioned novel. Major theoretical insights are drawn from Simone De Beauvoir’s groundbreaking text The Second Sex (1949) contextualizes love and romance to women in patriarchal societies. In addition to this theoretical support is taken from post-colonial feminism to contextualize and explain the gendered power imbalance and oppression experienced by the third-world women as presented through the fictional characters of the selected novel. This qualitative study hopes to demonstrate that within the South Asian patriarchal society, men use love and romance to oppress women and keep them within the patriarchal limits. It also aims to analyze how women experience, understand, and try to use love and romance as a power-giving strategy but is socially rejected. Men view love and romance differently from women who are more self-effacing and sacrificing in nature. Employing the method of textual analysis, this study also explores how love changes in times of war and can be a destructive force that brings hatred, revenge, and pain.</p> Farah Deeba Adnan Hussain Aaliya Batool Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-09 2023-04-09 7 2 419 428 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)36 The Effect of Four Skills Integrated Strategy on Learners’ Vocabulary Development <p>This research paper explores the impact of four language skills integration on learning of vocabulary using quasi non-random pre and posttests experiment. Vocabulary development is considered to be crucial for improving the proficiency in any target language. The significance of vocabulary is conspicuous in improving all four skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking. The paper examines the impact of these four language skills if integrated on developing vocabulary. The participants were selected from a university. They were being taught English at the undergraduate level. One group was termed as treatment group as it was taught vocabulary through four language skills integration strategy whereas another cluster was named control group and was taught through traditional approach. The results present four skills integration strategy superior to the traditional approach as the treatment group received better scores and outperformed the control group. It is recommended to authors and teachers to use four skills integration strategy for better results to develop their students’ vocabulary. Moreover, it is also suggested that qualitative research should be conducted to understand the underlying processes that contribute to the success of this strategy.</p> Kamran Ali Munawar Sultana Asadullah Larik Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-09 2023-04-09 7 2 429 436 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)37 Psychoanalytic Interpretation of W. B. Yeats' Dialogue of Self and Soul in relation to Id, Ego, and Super Ego <p>The present paper is an attempt to explore a beautiful blend of psychological conflict of Yeats platonic belief with experiences of real life. The dialogue of self and soul written by William Butler Yeats gives the Anti-self-theory. To put in the context of Freud psychological frame of id, ego and super ego, this dialogue is a revolutionary attempt towards own deceptive existence. Through the character of Self and Soul Yeats tells, how the unconscious mind has a power to direct the conscious mind. Similarly Id is sometimes shown as a devil sitting on the shoulder of a person. As this devil stays there, he informs the ego to decide what to do based on how it will affect the self, especially how it will make the self-happy. The ego is a person with a devil (id) on one shoulder and an angel (super ego) on the other. The superego is sometimes symbolized by an angel seated on somebody's shoulder, informing the ego to base their actions on how they will affect society.</p> Shumaila Maryam Barozai Hassin ur Rehman Muhammad Naseem Tareen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 7 2 437 447 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)38 Islamophobia and (Wes)toxification: A Hermeneutical and phenomenological reading of John Updike’s TERRORIST <p>This research takes up the dialectical presentation of Terrorist by John Updike to underscore the actively mediating presence of the reader(s) in treating meaning as an event. Drawing on Rosenblatt’s ‘aesthetic mode’ of reading, this paper argues that the determinate and indeterminate meaning(s) of Terrorist perpetuate Islamophobia, ethnocentrism, and Eurocentrism in the (mis)informed reader. The central character of Terrorist, Ahmad, is systematically indoctrinated by the Imam, Shaikh Rashid, and simultaneously manipulated by the CIA operative, Charlie Chehab, to deliver ‘Hutama’ on the nonbelievers/Americans. The dialectical presentation of Terrorist invites the reader to see the Imam as inciting Ahmad to advance his suicidal mission. At the same time, there is some sort of balancing act at work with the CIA’s active incitement to Ahmad to blow up Lincoln’s Tunnel. While the ‘West’ here is also implicated in violent jehad and the hijacking of Ahmad’s critical orientation, the primary mover is the Muslim prayer leader, and by extension, the place of worship, the mosque, the act of worship itself. So, as informed readers participate in the dialectics of meaning construction, they do so not in isolation, but in the (overbearing) presence of existing views, representations and prismatic constructions of Islam. In this sense the reader is (mis)informed to maintain and support stereotypes of Islam, which Terrorist is superficially questioning.</p> Muhammad Afzal Faheem Muhammad Asif Sameer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-14 2023-04-14 7 2 448 454 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)39 Relations between the United States and Iran under the Presidency of Mahmud Ahmadinejad <p>This study examines how the shifting dynamics of geopolitical circumstances have impacted US-Iran relations to defend their national interests and regional dominance. The US strategy towards Iran has been focused on achieving non-proliferation goals and ending Iranian support of armed forces in the Israel-Arab conflict, which used violence to support Palestine's cause. Throughout the 2000s, Iran was labeled as an "axis of the evil state." However, the Obama administration has been actively encouraging talks between the US and Iran to lessen tensions between the two countries. Under the administration of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, relations between the United States and Iran centered on a change in the regional and global balance of power and alliances, highlighted the two countries desire for mutual security through a variety of measures and continued to focus on the core vital goals in the regional set-up.</p> Rabia Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-17 2023-04-17 7 2 455 468 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)40 Religion and British Raj Religious Development in Multan Division during Colonial Period <p>Like other regions and countries around the world, religion and religious development have remained an important aspect of South Asian culture. In some instances, people's religious habits were thought to be the primary determinant of their identity. This article aims to comprehend and identify the fundamental theological tendencies that affected Multan's division under British administration. South Asia in general and Multan in particular have seen a movement toward a diversity of religious views. Muslims, Sikhs, and Hindus were the most well-known and prominent religious groups that contributed to Multani culture. Christianity was the new religion that took off in Multan and other nearby locations. There were a few locals who converted to the new religion, but the number of conversions to the new infrastructure of religious buildings (churches), which became a part of Multani society, was not great. In this research study, only the materials that have been documented, both primary and secondary sources are used. According to the study's findings, religious peace predated the arrival of the British and was a feature of society. However, as rulers changed and society and culture changed, a number of problems arose</p> Khuram Majeed Qaswar Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-22 2023-04-22 7 2 469 477 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)41 Interpretive Structural Model (ISM) based Analysis of Issues of National Integration in Pakistan: A Case Study of Balochistan <p>Society of Pakistan is a plural society having four provinces with their own cultures, norms and traditions. Focusing on Balochistan, a backward and underdeveloped province with fewer facilities consisting the issue of national integration. National integration is a process in which divisive community and cultures are blends into complete unity. As far as Balochistan is concerned, it is a province that has enough strategic importance but lack of government policies creates the issue of national integration. The study examines the relations among different variables that affect the process of Nation Integration in Balochistan in light of Interpretive Structural Model (ISM) in form of diagraph. The objective of this study is to measure the intensity of relations among variable, i.e. two way relationships, a variable influence by the other variable and a variable influenced by the other variable. In order to achieve the main aim of the research, questionnaire has been designed comprising on twenty-four (24) variables, filled by the method “Expert Opinion”. Main challenge for the government, is to overcome the fears and securities of Baloch, resource distribution, abolishment of the foreign involvement, control of the military, security of the “Sardari and Tribe System” since this system is identity and beauty of this culture.</p> Shamila Tabssum Maryam Ali Ghulam Mustafa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-22 2023-04-22 7 2 478 490 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)42 Japanese Sense of Place and Time: A Descriptive Study <p>The difference between Japanese and Western art and architecture has been in continuous discussion for a long time. There had been an array of literature from both sides, often focusing on single sided representation. This study aims to present an important aspect of Japanese art and architecture for a better understanding of both extremes. This descriptive study is focused on the extensive exploration of available literature and analysis of cultural artifacts that embody the concept of Ma to produce a clear, concise, and rigorous descriptive synthesis for the benefit of architecture students and young professionals. Although the majority of the data used in this literature-based article was secondary, an attempt was made to diagrammatically summarize the entire discussion. The study advises to avoid making blatant simplification in architecture in terms of spatial layout, formal compositions, and technology interventions since they may lead to misapprehensions and cultural oddity.</p> Ubaid Ullah Shabbir Ullah Rabia Noureen Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-23 2023-04-23 7 2 491 499 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)43 Religious, Cultural and Lingual Stereotypes: a Deconstructive Study of Haji’s the Sweetness of Tears <p>This study aims at the deconstructive analysis of the religious, cultural and lingual stereotypes represented through the Americans and the Muslims in Nafisa Haji’s The Sweetness of Tears. Both Americans and Muslims have been sharing a binary of the victims and the victimizers since the incident of 9/11. Muslims are scrutinized and deported to their hometown on charge of being ‘terrorists’ by the Americans. Firstly, the study illustrates that by deconstructing these stereotypes, a new intimate association can be established between the Americans and the Muslims. Derrida has given the approach of ‘Deconstruction’ to equalize the power structures of binary oppositions. In his theory of ‘Deconstruction’, he deconstructs the unequal association of binaries as “good” and “evil” and “Superior” and “Inferior”. He says that these binaries are the expression of one another e.g “good” is the expression of “evil” and “evil” is the expression of “good”. Similarly, “Superior” is the expression of “Inferior” and “Inferior” is the expression of “Superior”. By deconstructing these stereotypes, the rigid bond of the Americans and the Muslims can be entered into a harmonious association. Secondly, the Muslims can maintain their identities as “Muslims” without tagging them as being terrorists. Thirdly, by crossing the boundaries of a Muslim country, Americans can learn and understand Muslims’ religion, culture and language as is shown in the novel under discussion. This study depicts that the Americans have started to accept the Muslims as non-violent people. Jo March (protagonist) learns Urdu (the national language of Pakistan), comes to Pakistan and lives here to know about the culture, traditions and religion of Muslims. She binds the ties together and made a harmonious association between the American family and the Muslim family. This study supports this intimate association between both Americans and Muslims.</p> Muqaddas Saif Mazhar Hayat Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 7 2 500 509 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)44 Exploring the Prevalence of Sexual Harassment in Academia: Experiences of Female Teachers at Higher Education Institutions <p>Sexual harassment of females is a pervasive problem in academia that affects women's career prospects and overall well-being. The present study aimed to analyze female teachers' experiences regarding sexual harassment (SH) at Higher Education Institutions. The quantitative research design was employed for the current study. The study’s sample included eighty (80) female teachers selected by using the technique of convenient sampling. For the purpose of data collection, the SEQ Sexual Experiences Questionnaire, designed by Fitzgerald et al. (1995) was employed. The findings revealed that the most typical forms of sexual harassment experienced by female instructors were gender harassment and unwanted sexual pursuits. The results of this study suggested that institutions need to adopt a zero-tolerance approach towards sexual harassment and are required to take proactive measures to prevent harassment to ensure a safe and respectful culture for females in the workplace.</p> Samina Akhtar Saeed Shakir Syeda Tehmina Naz Bukhari Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 7 2 510 518 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)45 Ethan Frome: Naturalism’s “Scapegoat,” or Romantic Hero? <p>Edith Wharton’s novel Ethan Frome is usually but inaccurately classified as Naturalistic. Naturalistic works typically feature characters constrained by their environment, social circumstances, or personal struggles. This article rejects that characterization. Careful application of the naturalistic model indicates that the novel’s major elements of setting, structure, characters, and theme do not fit that model. Close reading and careful analysis provide convincing evidence that the novel’s focus is the transformative power of love. This study hypothesizes that such a focus places the novel within the Romantic genre. Further close analysis indicates that the characters’ other-worldly, idealized love leads to an outcome more tragic than death, and that these consequences represent love’s consummate triumph. The study concludes that Ethan Frome therefore incorporates one of the highest values of Western society, regularly embodied in its religions and its art.</p> Denise B. de la Cruz Zeeshan Khan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-27 2023-04-27 7 2 519 529 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)46 Peasant Revolts against Colonial Forces: A Case Study of Agrarian Unrest in the Punjab Province in 1907 <p>The Indian independence movement owes a great deal to the peasant uprisings that served as a symbol of the people of India's awareness of the colonial force and their desire for self-government. This research study is to trace out the major developments of peasants’ struggle in the Punjab province with focusing on the agrarian revolts of 1907. The revolt of 1907 was a game changing event for the peasants and the agrarian classes in the Punjab province to resist the colonial force along with the political forces which were working for the separate and self-government in India. For this research study the historical analytical method is adopted to trace out the research gap of the study. The results of this study shows that the revolt was one of the factors for the self-consciousness of the agrarian and lower classes of Punjab and make them more strengthen against the colonial forces.</p> Fazal Abbas Shah Turab-ul-Hassan Sargana Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-04-27 2023-04-27 7 2 530 538 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)47 Effect of Information and Communication Technology for the Development of Urdu Reading Skills of Students with Hearing Impairment <p>Education is the fundamental right of every person in the society and Students with Hearing Impairment (SWHI) is also a part of our society. Hearing impaired students face various problems in their academics especially in reading text. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to develop Urdu reading skills of hearing impaired students in view of “Zone of Proximal Development” framework. True-experimental (pre-test post-test control group design) of quantitative research paradigms was used to conduct this study. A sample of 30 SWHI was selected by the researcher from two schools of special education department Govt. of Punjab and divided into two equal groups through simple random sampling technique. Content was taken from Urdu text book of grade 3 and video clips of this content were made through ICT and taught to the experimental group as treatment whereas control group was taught through traditional method. A self-made instrument in the form of Urdu reading test was developed by the researcher and applied as pretest &amp; posttest to establish the baseline of Urdu reading skills of SWHI. Data was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and parametric statistics were used to compare the results of both groups. Recommendations were made on the basis of findings and conclusions for the better improvement of Urdu reading skills for the SWHI by the usage of ICT.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Afzaal Abid Hussain Ch Humara Bano Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 7 2 539 549 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)48 Challenges of Teaching Writing to ESL Learners in a Pakistani Public High School: Issues, Contributing Factors, and Solutions Based on Personal Reflections <p>This study is an in-depth effort to investigate issues and contributing factors usually faced by Pakistani ESL learners in learning writing skills. Learning English language writing has always been a daunting task for second language students to master, especially in high schools as the nature and amount of written work in English increases at this level. Not only that, but Pakistani ESL high school teachers also do face many challenges in teaching writing skills. The study investigates problems and issues faced by public high school students in learning writing skills along with the strategies teachers can use to cater the problems. This study identifies problems faced by students and offers suggestions for improvement. The challenges, issues, contributing factors, and suggested solutions are based on the personal reflections of the researchers. The researchers have a great deal of experience of teaching English at public high schools in Pakistan. Its findings not only reveal the problematic factors but also suggest some practical solutions. The findings and recommendations may help ESL teachers reflect on their teaching practices and assist them in supporting their efforts to help students improve their writing skills.</p> Tasawar Abbas Shah Sajida Hussain Saddaf Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 7 2 550 563 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)49 Studying the Impact of Social Media on Pakistani ESL Students' Writing <p>The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of social media on Pakistani ESL students' writing; they used different types of writing (formal and informal) on Facebook and in class settings. The primary data was collected using a questionnaire consisting of 35 questions in five sections. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed among the B.S. (English) students and faculty members of Govt. College &amp; University Lahore and the University of Lahore to collect the data. Facebook was used as an independent and writing as the dependent variable. The SPSS analysis, English assessment test, and the Facebook group were selected for this study to investigate the impact of social media on Pakistani ESL students' writing. The descriptive results showed that Facebook has an impact on Pakistani ESL students writing. The future research should be focused on students’ writing improvement using other social networks sites with different research designs.</p> Najam Un Nisa Sibtain Aslam Tayyba Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 7 2 564 576 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)50 Gender Sensitive Communication in ELT Classroom: Practices and Prevention <p>The present study explores the practices of gender sensitive communication by the teachers in English language teaching and learning classrooms with the focus on knowing the concept, the level of gender sensitive communication and the possible prevention to avoid its negative impacts on the learners and the learning environment. Teachers consciously or unconsciously as a social practice use gender sensitive language during the classroom interactions. The data for the present study has been collected through questionnaire from 305 students studying at undergraduate level in Multan. The findings of the study reveal that the teachers use gender sensitive language in English teaching classrooms. It shows that our classrooms are operating as gender operative. This practice creates a negative environment of learning. Consequently, it affects the learning abilities of the students. It is suggested that our classroom should not be operative as gender sensitive. The teachers should use a neutral discourse rather than gendered.</p> Amir Hafeez Malik Muhammad Umar Amna Ghulam Nabi Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 7 2 577 585 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)51 The Manipulation of Pakistani News Media Using Deletion in News Reports of Rape Cases <p>This study aims at investigating the manipulation strategy of Pakistani news media coverage by using ‘deletion’ from macrostructure for promoting victim blaming in rape cases. The study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) model of Van Dijk to examine the data collected from the most prominent Pakistani newspapers such as Dunya News, ARY News, Geo News, Dawn News, and The Express Tribune. The data was collected from their official websites. The study examined the impact of news media in reporting rape cases by using Van Dijk’s macrostructure model of CDA. The findings of the study revealed that the news media consciously uses ‘deletion’ as one of the four elements of macrostructure to conceal the truth in reporting the rape cases. One the basis of findings, the study recommends certain measures to minimize the issue of biased media coverage and victim blaming in Pakistan.</p> Muniba Zaman Syed Kazim Shah Nasir Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 7 2 586 596 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)52 Formation of Federation of Malaysia under the rule of British Empire: An Analysis <p>The main objective of this study is to understand the concept of federalism and to analyze the procedure opted by the British Empires to introduce federal system in Malaysia. After the World War II federal system became the popular option for modern nation States. Federalism in Malaysia, also introduced by the British empires in 1895 under the Federated Malay States (FMS). The federation of that time was not in true sense, it was emphasizing to strengthen the central government. Chronologically, the 1948 FMA was the successor to the abrogated constitution of 1946 Malayan Union constitution. Nine years later the FMA was in turn replaced by the 1957 federal constitution (Merdeka Constitution). This paper examines the formation of federation of Malaysia by using the descriptive and qualitative methods of study, and find out the features of above said constitutions that strengthening the central governments.</p> Shahida Begum Imdad Hussain Sehto Abdul Majeed Chandio Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 7 2 597 605 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)53 Public Art and Urban Cultural Identity: An Epitome of Public Art and Culture Corridor in Hangzhou, China <p>Since public art was introduced into China as an exclusive term in the early 1990s, with its own "publicity" and rich art forms, it has rapidly occupied all kinds of public Spaces in the urban development process. However, different from western countries, China's urban renewal has historical particularity. The rapid development of public art in many cities also exposes the decline of urban cultural vitality, single planning, loss of regional characteristics and other problems. At the end of the 20th century, under the overall plan of reshaping the awareness of urban cultural identity, China began to try its best to find a balance between modern urban cultural construction and historical context protection. In this process, Chinese public art gradually developed an art road suitable for its own urban development. Hangzhou's Public Art and Culture Corridor is a typical practice case in this transition period.</p> Zhu Kecheng Mahboob Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 7 2 606 619 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)54 A Conceptual Review of Qualitative Research Inquiry in Applied Linguistics <p>This conceptual review explores the concept of qualitative research paradigm from a variety of angles in order to explain its defining qualities, philosophical underpinnings, scope, characteristics, and designs widely used in applied linguistics research. To highlight the value of qualitative methodology for researchers attempting to bring out various facets of truth pertaining to language learning, human behaviors, experiences, and actions, the study considers journal articles, book chapters and books published between 2007-2023 on digital databases and examines the defining characteristics of qualitative research and how qualitative research methods are conceptualized and manifested in applied linguistics research. The study helps new researchers who are attempting to learn concepts linked to qualitative research and their demonstration in actual research process to have a stronger comprehension of the qualitative research paradigm.</p> Urooj Yahya Mahwish Arif Sidra Awan Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-18 2023-05-18 7 2 620 633 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)55 Promoting Reflective Practice for Professional Development of Teachers through the Lens of College Principals: A Qualitative Research Inquiry <p>The concept of reflection is currently gaining popularity in the realm of academia, as it can be a powerful tool for professional growth, enabling teachers to critically analyze their teaching methods, assess student learning outcomes, and make informed instructional decisions. The objective of this qualitative research inquiry was to explore the attitude of principals towards promoting reflective practice (RP) for the professional development of teachers within the colleges. For the purpose of data collection, a total of eighteen (18) principals, including male (n = 12) and female (n = 6), were selected using a purposive sampling method from colleges in Dera Ghazi Khan, South Punjab, Pakistan. The results of this investigation suggested various strategies that can be used to promote reflective practice among teachers. The insights gained from this research could potentially inform policymakers and administrators in designing supportive structures and policies to encourage reflective practice among professionals in various fields.</p> Muhammad Zahid Hussain Samina Akhtar Syeda Tehmina Naz Bukhari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-21 2023-05-21 7 2 634 641 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)56 Error Analysis of English Language Competence of Computer Science Students at University of Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir <p>Use of technology has brought revolution in every sphere of life especially it has provided higher level of facilitation to the students on correct writing in English language. It has not only helped students preserve their written work; it has also facilitated their language related problems also. However, technological use for written work in English language has affected correct language use at a greater extent. The uses of grammar checker, grammarly software and quillbot have made students dependent on technology. The students of Computer Science excessively make the use of technology and spend most of their time on laptops and computers which has badly affected their correct language use. Keeping in view the phenomenon, current study was conducted to investigate the types and level of language errors made by the students at University of Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir. In this respect, 20 students of Computer Science were selected randomly to carry out the study. These students were given the topic, ‘My Dreams’ and they were asked to develop an essay of 200 words. Their writings were collected and their copies were distributed to three different English teachers for identification of mistakes. Finally, most common mistakes were highlighted and categorized. The categorized data was analyzed through simple statistical tool and the researchers found problems such as cohesion, lack of cohesive devices, inappropriate use of subject-verb agreement, spelling errors, prepositional errors, punctuation mistakes and errors in the use of capitalization.</p> Muhammad Hammad u Salam Arshad Mehmood Shujaat Ali Rathore Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-21 2023-05-21 7 2 642 649 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)57 Referential Strategies in the Speeches of President George W. Bush after 9/11 Attacks <p>The present study aims at exploring the referential strategies employed by President George W. Bush to represent the elements of positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation (van Dijk, 2006) in his speeches after the calamity of 9/11 and to find out the motives behind using these strategies. The analysis has been conducted using van Dijk’s (2006) macro strategies of positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation as the main conceptual framework of this study. It was found out that Bush used his discursive power to persuade the people of America for the upcoming global war on terror by naming the possible enemies in various ways. The main motive was to present American people as a united and glorious nation (‘Us’) and, in this way, to convince them for launching the global war on terror against the perpetrators of terrorism (‘others’) in America. For this purpose, he frequently used the strategies of positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation during his speeches. The study suggests that similar analysis of the speeches of world renowned leaders may be conducted to find out the motives and us-others’ divide hidden in their speeches.</p> Sumbal Butt Qurrat ul Ain Muhammad Islam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-21 2023-05-21 7 2 650 660 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)58 Impact of Training on Teacher’s Performance in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan <p>Training and performance have always been a driving force for enhancing the teacher’s performance. A training and development program provides opportunities to the employees to be acquainted with the verity of skills, information, attitude and conduct. This study aims to investigate the impact of training on teacher’s performance and also investigate the relationship between demographic factors:-1-Gender 2-Age 3-Qualification.We use SJoP Instrument to measure the teacher’s performance. The questionnaire was designed by using instrument and had 12 items by using Likert scale. We collect data from 250 teachers and using random sampling technique. After collecting data we use inferential statistics, and apply ANOVA to analyse the data. The findings show a positive relationship between the training and teacher’s performance, and it develops teacher’s skills and abilities to perform better in the classroom. This study suggests that institutions should conduct training for the teachers that help to enhance the teacher’s performance in the classroom and give success and improve the institution’s development.</p> Nazia Jabeen Saima Khalil Khadman Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-22 2023-05-22 7 2 661 668 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)59 The Impact of Great Power Politics on Mitigating the Challenges of Climate Change <p>This study examines how great power politics affect efforts to mitigate climate change. Global climate change is a threat to both human life and the environment, and the degree of coordination and collaboration among major nations may either facilitate or obstruct progress in addressing the issue. This study gives an overview of the pertinent literature on the subject, emphasizing significant concepts and hypotheses as well as highlighting gaps in existing research. The research design used in the study comprises case studies of major power couples such as the United States and China, the European Union and Russia, and India and Japan. Data is collected using qualitative approaches and processed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that, while major nations play an important role in climate change mitigation, geopolitical disputes, and internal politics can stymie collaboration.</p> Muhammad Munir Muhammad Mahmood Sultan Alyas Ali Chaichi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-22 2023-05-22 7 2 669 679 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)60 Attitudes and L2 Motivation among Burushaski-native Learners of Urdu <p>The attitudes towards a particular language, be it a first or a second/foreign language, are a potential reflection of its standing in the social hierarchy of languages. The study aimed to investigate the attitudes of young Burushaski-natives towards Burushaski and Urdu as a second language as well as their L2 Motivational Self System. Employing a quantitative approach, attitude and motivation data were elicited through adaptations of Attitude/Motivation Test Battery and Dörnyei’s Attitude/Motivation questionnaire. Results suggested that Urdu held a significant instrumental value while Burushaski was considered culturally important. It was also found that both attitudinal and motivational scales included may not have been measuring distinct constructs of motivation for learning Urdu, suggesting invalidity of Dörnyei’s model. However, the socio-contextual scale of national interest proved to be an effective contributor in overall L2 motivation.</p> Charisma Wafee Mah e Nao Maha Hijab Sikandar Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-23 2023-05-23 7 2 680 690 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)61 The Impact of Physical Activities on Academics Achievements and Grooming Potential among Higher Secondary School Students <p>The aim of this research was to explore the connection between physical activity, academic achievement and grooming potential among high and higher secondary school students'. 200 participants from high school and higher secondary school students, both boys and girls, were chosen and contacted using a convenient sample technique. Nearly every day, students were evaluated by their involvement in games and physical activities. The pupils in high and intermediate schools who were participated in PA did not have any negative effects on their academic performance. The findings also revealed strong and positive connections between participation in sports and academic success (r=0.51, p 0.05) and personal development (r=0.40, p 0.05). Furthermore, there was a positive and substantial association between academic success and personal development. (r=0.206, P &lt; 0.05). Participating in PA and games has idealistic effects on students' attention span, cognition, and classroom demeanor. The study revealed the fact that including PA into academic sessions without interruption will increase student performance and develop their personalities in terms of their physical, psychological, mental, and social well-being.</p> Sara Ijaz Shabana peer Shaha Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 7 2 691 703 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)62 Paranoia and Schizophrenia in Sindhi Postmodern Literature: An Analysis of the Novel Regal Chowk by Kaleem Butt <p>This study examines the interplay of paranoia and schizophrenia in postmodern Sindhi literature, with a specific focus on the novel "Regal Chowk" by Kaleem Butt. Postmodernism, characterized by the eclectic blending of old and new elements in diverse artistic styles, challenges fixed realities and emphasizes the subjective nature of truth. Through an exploration of the representation of paranoia and schizophrenia in Sindhi literature, this research goes beyond the traditional association of these psychological states with modernism and postmodernism, arguing that they collaboratively embody postmodern elements in fiction. By conducting a meticulous analysis of "Regal Chowk," this study sheds light on the intricate relationship between paranoia, schizophrenia, and postmodernism in Sindhi literature. It uncovers the thematic nuances, characterization techniques, and narrative strategies employed in the novel, offering valuable insights into the construction of postmodern literary landscapes. The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of how psychological states intersect with postmodernism, showcasing the dynamism and experimental nature of Sindhi literature in its exploration of narrative forms and concepts. Ultimately, this research underscores the prevalence of paranoia, schizophrenia, intertextuality, and the rejection of objective truth in Sindhi literature, establishing its significant connections to wider literary traditions.</p> Suhail Ahmed Solangi Mubarak Ali Lashari Muhammad Arsalan Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 7 2 704 714 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)63 English Language Learners’ Perceptions towards the Use of E-learning Tools in Pakistan <p>While living and learning in the 21st century, learners across the world are gradually, rather than slowly, getting exposed to the emerging trends of learning support facilities and environments as they emerge. E-learning is also one such learning support that students are exposed to use at tertiary level learning environments in academically advanced as well as developing countries, such as Pakistan. This paper investigates the extent to which e-learning tools were used by English language learners. It also aims to know their perceptions of e-learning tools during COVID-19. Using mixed method approach, convergent sequential strategy was followed. The data was collected using a questionnaire and semi structured interviews. It was analyzed through descriptive statistics and thematic analysis respectively. The results of the study indicate the positive perception of English language learners towards e-learning tools since majority of the learners believed in effectiveness of e-learning. E-learning tools were perceived useful and easy to use by English language learners in their learning process. Furthermore, mobile phone and zoom application turned out to be extensively used tools followed by the use of WhatsApp among all others during COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan.</p> Saira Niaz Niaz Hussain Soomro Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 7 2 715 729 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)64 The Influence of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) on the Teaching Approaches of secondary School teachers in District Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan <p>This paper presents a study conducted in district Sukkur, Sindh, which explores the influence of continuing professional development (CPD) on the teaching approaches of secondary school teachers. The research aims to determine the impact of CPD programs on teachers' knowledge, skills, and practices. The study employs a mixed-method approach, gathering data from 30 head teachers and 120 secondary school teachers who participated in CPD programs. Data collection methods include surveys, interviews, and classroom observations. CPD programs enhance teachers' approaches by improving knowledge, skills, and confidence. They provide new strategies, resources, and tools for pedagogical improvement, fostering collaborative learning, professionalism, and continuous improvement. This leads to improved academic outcomes. Regression analysis shows that CPD programs have a significant positive effect on students' academic outcomes (β = 0.269, p &lt; 0.05). The study highlights challenges faced by teachers in CPD programs and recommends increased government and institutional support for professional development in Sukkur district, Sindh, Pakistan.</p> Abdullah Ghunio Niamatullah Neelofar Shaikh Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2023-05-28 2023-05-28 7 2 730 739 10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)65