Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review (PLHR) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. PLHR is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes <strong>Quarterly</strong>. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) en-US Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review 2708-6453 <p><img src="https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/public/site/images/adminplhr/open-access.png" alt="" width="500" height="200" /></p> <p><strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC)</strong> &amp; <strong>PAKISTAN LANGUAGES AND HUMANITIES REVIEW (PLHR)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>PLHR</strong> agree to the <strong>copyright policy</strong> under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>PLHR</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>PLHR</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC)</strong> &amp; <strong>PAKISTAN LANGUAGES AND HUMANITIES REVIEW (PLHR)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access</strong> Policy for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></p> <p><a href="https://sfdora.org/"><img src="https://plhr.org.pk/images/signatory-of-dora.png" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> Elements of Human Psychology in Robert Frost's Poem “The Road Not Taken”: A Literary Analysis https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/893 <p>The study concentrates on various psychological theories and notions, such as judgment, regret, introspection, and personal development. An American poet, Robert Frost (1874–1963), wrote "The Road Not Taken," a well-known poem first published in 1915. Because of its distinct perspectives and dimensions, "The Road Not Taken" is significant in American literature. This study adopts a qualitative research methodology, with literary analysis as the primary way to gather data. The poem "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost served as the study's primary data source. In the current study, the researcher has examined the psychological foundations of the poem. We can learn more about the psychological aspects of "The Road Not Taken" and how choices are made and handled by developing an excellent grasp of the human experience. The conclusions drawn from this approach can be used in several disciplines, such as psychology, literature, and philosophy. The study's findings support several recommendations that can be made to improve the comprehension and application of psychological principles in literary analysis, decision-making processes, and interdisciplinary studies. These recommendations include the use of scholarly works in psychological therapy, educational and curriculum development, and the integration of psychological theories in literary studies.</p> Shagufta Khurram Zulfiquar Ali Chachar Farhana Yasmeen Qadri Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-01 2024-06-01 8 2 01 14 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)01 The Construal of Political Perspectives in News Reporting: A Critical Discourse Analysis of CNN and Al-Jazeera https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/894 <p>News reporting is a source of presenting the legitimacy and credibility of facts with a sense of liveliness and immediacy. The present study aims to explore the Construal of Political Perspectives through News Reporting in electronic media with the assumption that how lexical choices are made to portray a particular ideology by a particular group. Articles which highlight the shaping of updates by channels like CNN, BBC and Al-Jazeera have been analyzed for the foundation of the current study. In the present study, twenty news headlines of electronic media including CNN and Al-Jazeera have been selected from the period of October to December 2023. The headlines are analyzed by applying Tuen A. van Dijk’s Social Cognition Model under the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis. It has been observed in the news that Construal of Political Perspectives is being made through biased news reporting. The research study culminates that use of specific adjectives for one state and not for the other at war delivers partial update, creating a bias in not only the attitudes of the states but also of the audience. The adjectives and particular lexical choices made by the news channels is what is keeping the discursive discourse alive, controlling the biased responses of the audience. It is concluded that media is playing a pivotal role in construing the Political Perspectives via reporting biased news and lexical choices. The results of the present research are a hallmark in comprehending the idea of language exploitation.</p> Mamona Mahar Zubair Iqbal Malik Salah Ud Din Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-01 2024-06-01 8 2 15 21 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)02 Voicing the Unvoiced: Exploring the Themes of Prostitution through Verbal Irony in Gangubai Kathiawadi https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/895 <p>Using the theoretical framework of I.A Richards’ New Criticism, the researcher reveals the covert realities of society and the social treatment towards prostitutes through the plot of Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s movie “Gangubai (2022)”. The researcher, by depicting verbal irony in conversations, signifies the character’s delineation, social critique, and narrative subversion in the movie. These conversational moments are taken as the primary context for the research analysis which follows the qualitative research methodology. It decodes the social conditioning of prostitutes, labeled untouchables and unacceptable, by evaluating the pretentious morality of well-reputed patriarchy and socially accepted against fairgrounds of true morality. It also signifies the truth of political power dynamics by revealing the influencing capabilities of prostitutes. Thus, any fair and moral individual, capable of social guardianship should be given the responsibility of society for prosperity, moral and social peace irrespective of any pathetic conditioned codification. Other practical principles of New Criticism including formal analysis, attentive reading, and attention to textual ambiguity are also implemented by the researcher.</p> Saira Shabbir Summia Masood Shameer Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-02 2024-06-02 8 2 22 28 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)03 A Comparative Analysis of Metadiscourse Markers in Pakistani and Native English Travel Blogs https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/896 <p>This study seeks to investigate metadiscourse markers utilized by travel bloggers in both Pakistani English and Native English contexts. Metadiscourse functions as an interaction tool employed by writers to foster a sense of self-reflection and facilitate reciprocal engagement with their readers. In the contemporary context, the burgeoning tourism industry and the widespread use of social media have led to an accelerated exchange of ideas. Employing a mixed- methods analysis, the research focused analysis of interactive and interactional metadiscourse, using Hyland's (2005) Interpersonal Model of Metadiscourse. The researchers employed a convenient sampling technique to collect 15 travel blogs in both Pakistani English and Native English. Findings show that Pakistani English bloggers extensively use both interactional and interactive metadiscourse markers compared to their Native English counterparts. The analysis highlights the prevalence of boosters, transitions, hedges, engagement markers, and self-mentions among bloggers, indicating common strategies. This study reveals cross-cultural nuances in travel blogging by examining metadiscourse markers in both contexts. The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of how language influences reader engagement and shapes travel experiences, offering insights valuable for bloggers, linguists, and the tourism industry. The research suggests more in-depth study of metadiscourse markers as an interaction tool across different genres.</p> Hafsa Bibi Samina Ishaq Zarmina Anwaar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 8 2 29 44 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)04 Human Rights Violations: A Case Study of Palestine (2000-2024) https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/897 <p>Human rights have constantly been violated by Israel backed by America. It is crucial to address the violations to find solution for the issue. It has been commenced from the inception of Israel. However, in this paper, the time from 2000 to 2024 have been examined to provide accurate data and solution to a massive human rights violations in the region. Qualitative methodology and secondary sources have been used to understand the Palestine situation under the human rights theory. As a result, the state of Israel has further enhanced the brutality in the region. To a large extant women, and children have been perished. All these human rights violations have taken place owing to the support of America. In sum, human rights have massively been violated by Israel backed by the US. It shows they have nothing to do with democracy and human rights but selfish interest. Hence, the democratic principles must be redefined and defended by the globe regardless of any influence and discriminations.</p> Saqib Khan Warraich Muslim Khan Umair Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-06 2024-06-06 8 2 45 51 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)05 Measuring the Cognitive Learning of Graduate Students about Zero Conditional Sentences in English at KFUEIT: The Descriptive and Explanatory Analysis https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/899 <p>The effect of conditional sentences on the cognitive learning of graduate students is important because, in different cognitive tests, the questions related to conditional sentences are included. During the studies, students should have proper awareness and knowledge about conditional sentences. Investigating the awareness, learning, knowledge as well as deficiencies about this topic is necessary. For this survey and descriptive nature study the quantitative and qualitative (QUAN-qual.) method was implemented. The explanatory sequential technique was implied. The researchers analyzed the responses of the participants of the two indicators: type-one indicator conditional sentences, and type-two conditional sentences. The results of the indicators were concerned according to the responses of the students. Results showed that majority of students have consciousness and knowledge of conditional sentences and they try to keep the practice of conditional sentences. The students understand the correct and incorrect sentences. In the end some recommendations are presented on the base of results. The study will prove beneficial for students, educators and future researchers.</p> Bushra Rasheed Jam Muhammad Zafar Rubina Shaheen Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-13 2024-06-13 8 2 52 65 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)06 Perceived Social Support as A Predictor of Perceived Stress in Nursing Students in Pakistan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/900 <p>The objective of present research was to study the predictive association between perceived social support and perceived stress in nursing students in Pakistan. The correlation study was conducted to find if there would be a significant predictive association between perceived social support and perceived stress in student nurses. The sample of 555 nursing students of ages 19-30 years (M= 21.41; SD=2.25) was recruited by using purposive sampling technique. Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Perceived Stress Scale were used in Urdu language as research instruments. Descriptive statistics was used for demographic characteristics of the sample, while Regression analysis was used to analyze the predictive link between study variables. Result indicates the statistically significant predictive relationship between PSS and PS in nursing student (r=.576, p&lt;0.001). It is recommended that social support may play a crucial role in reducing perceived stress and its adverse impacts on mental health of nursing students.</p> Rabia Mushtaq Riaz Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-13 2024-06-13 8 2 66 74 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)07 Exploring Narrative Techniques and Audience Engagement in Contemporary Crime Cinema: A Case Study of 'The Crew' (2008) https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/902 <p>This research aims to analyze how the film "The Crew" utilizes flashbacks, pacing, and foreshadowing to deepen character development, enhance suspense, and maintain thematic coherence. Storytelling and narrative techniques are crucial in contemporary cinema for engaging audiences. "The Crew" serves as a case study for exploring effective narrative construction, drawing on theoretical concepts from Bordwell, Thompson, and Chatman. This qualitative study involves detailed scene analysis of "The Crew" to examine the application of flashbacks, pacing, and foreshadowing. The research focuses on how these techniques contribute to the film’s narrative structure and audience engagement. The findings reveal that "The Crew" effectively uses pacing to modulate emotional intensity, flashbacks to provide character backstory, and foreshadowing to create anticipation. These techniques enhance character development, suspense, and thematic coherence. The study recommends incorporating these narrative techniques to achieve a deeper engagement and emotional response from audiences, contributing to more effective storytelling in contemporary cinema.</p> Quratulan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 8 2 75 82 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)08 Exploring the Dynamics of Personal and Historical Realities in Selected South Asian Postmodern Novels https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/903 <p>This study aims to investigate the different ways that historical narrative changes in the selected postmodern fiction. South Asian English literature has prominently demonstrated its profound concern with history and its significance in the current global context. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of English novels through Pakistani and Indian authors that are commonly categorized as postmodern historiographic literary metafiction. Postmodern fiction writers typically diverge from the conventional portrayal of historical events. Postmodern fiction writers typically diverge from the conventional portrayal of historical events. This study focuses on four novels: Kamila Shamsie's Burnt Shadows, Amitav Ghosh's Sea of Poppies, Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner, and Michael Ondaatje's The English Patient. Utilizing textual analysis as a qualitative and descriptive research approach, this study applies Linda Hutcheon's theoretical concept from 1985. These novels employ unique storytelling techniques and multiple perspectives to reinterpret conventional history, challenging the dominance of traditional historical fiction. The study concludes that such novels alter conventional historical narratives by incorporating elements of intertextuality, self-reflexivity, and fragmentation.</p> Nida Masroor Muhammad Ajmal Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 8 2 83 95 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)09 Desubalternity: A Psychoanalytical Study of Displacement of Emotions in Carol Ann Duffy’s The World’s Wife https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/904 <p>The research examines the characters and their interrelated relationships as an outlet of their psychological burden which they share as same sex. By scrutinizing the elements of psychological displacement of emotions, the research tries to identify the gap between the realities and how by giving voice to these characters, the repressed desires are being transferred and changing the narrative for the reader. The research analyzes selected poems from the collection The World’s Wife by Carol Ann Duffy through the lens of psychoanalytical process of displacement. The selected poems deconstruct the gender politics and emphasize on the narrative of the silenced female mythological and historical figures. By identifying displacement of emotions in the female characters and analyzing those emotions through introversion and the gender politics that it creates, the concept of desubalternity comes to shore. The research actively traces the collective metamorphosis of the female characters without being a critique on masculinity which paints the complex image of the phenomenon of being doubly marginalized and how these characters’ model introversion through desubalternity. The paper suggests that peeling both layers of marginalization is required to gain a true sense of power.</p> Mashal Bushra Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 8 2 96 102 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)10 The Role of Pirs and Shrines in the Politics of Pakistan: A case study of District Toba Tek Singh https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/905 <p>This research studied the factors that tend to influence the engagement of the Pir and shrines during and after the election process. Most Muslims in Toba Tek Singh identify as Pirs and Shrines have had a considerable effect on the region's religious landscape; neither their patronage nor their patrons' loyalty to them has served as a reliable foundation for overt political activity in the area. Shrines and Pirs were closely related to politics in the 21st century. The Shrines and Pirs gave rise to a humanist approach to politics observed in Toba Tek Singh, and through such traditions, local authorities get benefitted politically and economically. The qualitative research methodology is opted in this research by collecting empirical data to produce more relevant findings on a thorough study of electors. This research found out that most individuals strongly believe in the advantages of shrines with their Pirs and routinely visit them to fulfil their sociological, economic, psychological, and spiritual needs. This study insights that, the shrine phenomenon should be further studied at both the macro and micro levels to understand what political dynamics are fostering or enhancing the circumstance of shrine politics to make it less prevalent as it is crucial in affecting voter behavior in elections.</p> Irfan Farooq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-16 2024-06-16 8 2 96 102 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)11 Countering Feminist Dystopia in The Thing Around Your Neck through the Lens of Dear Ijeawele: A Feminist Manifesto in Fifteen Suggestions https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/907 <p>The paper explores how the female characters of The Thing Around Your Neck delve into a dystopian existence where their life was marked by systematic oppression and how they fought the grim situations through the powerful counterpoints suggested in the form of fifteen suggestions in Dear Ijeawele: A Feminist Manifesto in Fifteen Suggestions. The paper echoes the status of women in Nigerian society and specifically in Igbo culture, where the treatment of women is hinged on the dictates of patriarchy; however, their reformist attitude shows the evolution of the female characters from submissive, subjugated and suppressed to headstrong, assertive and liberated women. By using the model of feminist critical discourse analysis (FCDA), the research qualitatively explores the author's resistance to gender biases. Feminist utopian writers included dystopian warnings in their texts, but Adichie has turned the tables by adding hopeful notions in dystopian writing.</p> Mah e Nao Maha Hijab Sikandar Charisma Wafee Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 8 2 113 123 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)12 A Stylistic Analysis of Figures of Speech in Tariq Rehman's Bingo from The Legacy and Other Short Stories https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/909 <p>The aim of this study is to analyze the role of the figures of speech by performing a stylistic analysis of Tariq Rehman’s short story Bingo from the collection The Legacy and Other Short Stories. This analysis is qualitative in nature and utilizes content analysis approach hence the result involves identifying the figures of speech used such as metaphors, similes, personification, and hyperbole among others. The author notes that Rehman succeeds in the use of figures of speech to draw attention to the psychology of characters, help in strengthening the aspects of loss and nostalgia in the themes, as well as adding to the overall vividness of the novel’s descriptions. Further research on how cultural context influence the use of the rhetorical modes that appear in Rehman’s writing can be conducted and comparison between Rehman’s work and other writers in South Asian region can also be done.</p> Abdul Rauf alias Wazir Ali Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-21 2024-06-21 8 2 124 132 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)13 Unveiling Urban Pakistan: Postmodernism in Karachi, You’re Killing Me! https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/911 <p>This research critically analyzes Saba Imtiaz’s novel Karachi, You’re Killing Me! to explore the postmodern paradigm shift within urban Pakistan, particularly among the female working class. The study investigates the subversion of metanarratives, focusing on themes such as consumerism, commodity fetishism, and the power-knowledge nexus. Drawing from Lyotard’s theory in The Postmodern Condition, Foucault’s ideologies on power and knowledge, and Jameson’s views on consumerism, the protagonist’s actions are scrutinized to reveal the postmodern landscape. Employing textual analysis, the findings highlight Imtiaz’s portrayal of Karachi’s shifting societal norms, where Western influences challenge traditional Pakistani values and religious constraints. The study recommends further exploration of postmodern impacts on urban societies, suggesting strategies for balancing cultural preservation with evolving freedoms while addressing the complex dynamics of globalization and identity formation.</p> Aniqa Mushtaq Toqeer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-21 2024-06-21 8 2 133 144 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)14 Political Economy of Electoral Politics: Probing the Dynamics of Party Funding in Pakistan’s General Elections 2018 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/912 <p>The economy of electoral politics deals with the role of money in the electoral field. This study aims to identify the impact of the economy on the electoral politics of Pakistan. The background analyzed the role of political parties in Pakistan’s general elections 2018. Parties had spent an excessive money on their campaigns to increase their chances of winning the elections as electoral success largely depends on the amount of money that is spent in elections. Furthermore, the explanatory type of qualitative method, specifically the case study method is used to conduct the study. It has relied on primary and secondary sources of data collection. Lastly, uncontrolled expenditure compromises the fairness of the democratic process as the spending limits solely apply to candidates, leaving political parties exempt. Thus, there is a need to adopt a plethora of policies to regulate money circulation into politics.</p> Zainab Saif Rehana Saeed Hashmi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-21 2024-06-21 8 2 145 157 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)15 Politics of Body and Writing the Self: Female Resistance and Self-Exploration in Margaret Atwood’s Surfacing https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/913 <p>This research seeks to address the politics of female body and writing the ‘self’ in Margaret Atwood’s Surfacing. This study highlights the trope of feminine writing by discussing the significance of female body which is suppressed/colonized and suffers from identity crisis but reclaims itself by finding self-expression through body. By drawing upon the theoretical concepts of Helene Cixous’s “Ecriture Feminine”, it engages with the phenomenon that when a female body suffers from oppression and violence, it defies the patriarchal structures of phallocentric language and constructs its own mode of resistance by writing through body which helps a woman find means to explore her lost self. The textual analysis demonstrates that the individual self of the female protagonist gets divided and bears psychic traumas which ultimately lead her towards resistance. Hence, the reclamation of self becomes an inevitable quest for the protagonist which she endeavors to explore and ultimately achieves it.</p> Amina Mehmood Warda Abbas Sarah Azam Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 8 2 158 165 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)16 Uncovering the Debate of Nature and Nurture about Evil in Lord of the Flies through Diction https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/914 <p>The purpose of this study was to find out whether the violent behavior of human beings is the product of their nature, or it is the nurture or atmosphere that forces them to engage in evil acts. Earlier on, this contrast had been touched by psychologists, philosophers, and researchers, but no one has explored this concept in Golding’s use of diction in “Lord of the Flies." Through qualitative research methods, I have tried to explore the diction used by William Golding in his novel Lord of the Flies, in which he depicts that evil is in the nature of man, but civilization has masked it. When free from societal constraints, humans' natural impulse towards evil emerges, causing them to behave like beasts. These findings may help future researchers to delve deeper into understanding how different aspects of nurture, such as upbringing and social environment, impact the inherent evil nature of individuals.</p> Inzamam Aziz Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 8 2 166 173 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)17 The Missing Spark: Enhancing Parental Engagement in Punjab's Early Childhood Education Programs https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/915 <p>This qualitative research explored parental roles in Early Childhood Education (ECE) programs within Jhang and Dera Ghazi Khan Districts of Punjab, Pakistan. It aimed to understand family perspectives on program effectiveness and parental engagement in public schools. Parental involvement is crucial for a child's educational success. However, concerns exist regarding family engagement in Pakistani public schools, particularly within ECE programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve parents from both rural and urban areas of Punjab. Interviews focused on parental perspectives on ECE programs, their level of engagement in schools, and factors influencing participation. Findings revealed a strong parental preference for high-quality ECE programs and supportive learning environments. However, parents expressed concerns about a perceived lack of teacher enthusiasm and communication regarding their children's progress. While acknowledging the importance of play in learning, a lack of adequate play spaces was also noted. These findings highlight the need for improved educational practices and enhanced collaboration between parents and educators. Schools should prioritize providing regular updates on children's progress and consider creating stimulating learning environments with dedicated play spaces to foster active learning within ECE programs. This study offers valuable insights for promoting more effective parental engagement in their children's early education.</p> Abdul Qayyum Amber Saeed Abrar Hussain Qureshi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 8 2 174 188 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)18 Toward Sustainable Solutions: Understanding Climate Change Impacts on Food Security in the OIC Context https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/916 <p>This research is of utmost importance as it delves into the intricate relationship between climate change and food insecurity in Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states. The prevalence of food insecurity in these states, affecting a staggering 35.8% of the population compared to the global average of 29.5%, underscores the urgent need for tailored measures. The research takes a comprehensive approach, using high-alert OIC nations as case studies. It combines quantitative data analysis with qualitative case studies to explore the diverse impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity, water scarcity, and socio-economic vulnerabilities across different OIC contexts. The study's findings underscore the pressing need for adaptive strategies and policy interventions to combat the adverse effects of climate change on food security in each OIC nation. Drawing from these findings, the research proposes strategies and policy recommendations to establish a more resilient and secure food system across the OIC member states.</p> Hira Sarwar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 8 2 189 200 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)19 Evaluating the Importance of Female Leadership in Pakistan: Challenges and Opportunities https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/917 <p>The participation of Women in politics fosters gender equality, democratic progress and social development. The purpose of this article is to draw insights over the political culture of Pakistan to understand the challenges hindering the progress of women in political leadership, including cultural norms, values, beliefs, religious influences, and structural barriers. The importance of female leadership can be seen through the history of Pakistan, where female political personalities served the nation and brought women related policies as well. The women’s role was neglected and ignored during the dark democratic past of Pakistani politics. However, the articles highlight the historical trends, failures and success stories. The analytical research design with qualitative approach is used to analyze the secondary sources to provide a better understanding of the challenges associated and opportunities. The article hence provides a nuanced understanding of political culture of Pakistan and finds that political system is the main reason of women under representation. The study provides recommendations and urges the governments, civic society, and other stakeholders to work together to prioritize gender equality and empower women to play a larger role in determining the country's future</p> Zermeen Azam Saman Rasheed Amna Majeed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 8 2 201 212 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)20 Colonialism and Hybrid Political System: A Case of Pakistan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/918 <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of military and bureaucracy on Pakistan's politics by using politics of memory and colonialism as theoretical frameworks to interpret both historical as well as contemporary trajectories. This research seeks to discover how colonial legacies continue to influence contemporary practices of democracy by examining the effects of electoral rigging and military interventions on political stability. Pakistan, despite having some features of democracy, can best be declared a hybrid state where the core institutions like armed forces and bureaucracy predominantly shape and reshape the political and democratic discourse of both the state and the society. On the problems and challenges of hybrid democracy in Pakistan, this research is of the view that the Pakistani political system and democracy have not been decolonized since its inception in 1947. It is therefore strongly recommended that Pakistan should decolonize its political system to establish effective democratic infrastructure.</p> Muhammad Younis Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 8 2 213 223 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)21 Assessing Air Pollution Crisis in South Asia: The Health, Economic, and Environmental Implications through Case Studies of Lahore, Delhi, and Dhaka https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/919 <p>With rapid economic growth, air pollution has become a major concern in South Asia, raising the region to the top of global rankings. The research explored the public health, economic and environmental costs that are related to air pollution in three of South Asia's dirtiest cities: Delhi and Dhaka and Lahore. This study seeks to develop an understanding of the origins and outcomes of significant pollution in these cities, as well as strategies for mitigation. Ground level ozone and particulate matter (PM2. 5). Although the economic development in the region emerged, it did so to the detriment of environmental economics aspects, causing serious health and economic damage. This paper reviews published literature and data including annual PM2.5 Levels from 2014 to 2023 and estimates economic costs of disease based on healthcare use and productivity loss. Dive into select cities - Delhi, Dhaka and Lahore - to explore what air pollution means locally. The results pinpoint that massive surge in air pollution over the last decade, but the economic costs associated are projected to be as high as 1 % of global GDP by 2060. Health effects include increased risk of respiratory diseases and premature death, especially among non-smokers and children. Equally important are the environmental effects, resulting in great loss of biodiversity through local air pollution and global warming. This highlights an immediate requirement to implement strong policy measures focusing on local emission sources and air pollution impacts in various regions. These may include strict emission caps, technological developments as well as public awareness campaigns. Therefore, cross-border co-operation and well-planned development urban policies are essential to cope with this trans boundary matter. They argue that this research will help in understanding the impacts of air pollution crisis in South Asia and provide useful inputs to achieve not only cleaner air &amp; better public health but would be saving economy of the region.</p> Jana Awez Tayyaba Khan Mujeeb Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 8 2 224 235 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)22 Investigating Female Resistance and Governance in Challenging Patriarchy for Sustainability in Margret Atwood’s The Testaments (2019) https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/920 <p>This paper aims to explore female resistance against patriarchy in Margret Atwood’s The Testaments (2019), specifically focusing on themes of governance and sustainability. Incorporating methodology of Anarcha-Feminism and the concept of paradigm shift, it puts focus on the ways these women adopt to fight against the patriarchal system and the measures they took to work for gaining justice. Theorists from past and present indicate continuous, mass struggle, even in 21st century. The female characters of Atwood’s novels fight authoritarian regime through developing sisterhood, by creating space for liberation, by influencing the system and by developing counter-knowledges that weakens and challenges state narratives and state-authorized histories. Through the exploration of several resistive forms, this research breaks new ground on feminist studies and women’s writing, incorporating discussions societal change. It is recommended that policy makers prioritize initiatives promoting feminist political theory, providing strategies to dismantle authoritarianism and promote gender equality, democracy, and human rights globally.</p> Samavia Zia Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 8 2 236 244 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)23 Nativized Ways of Using English Language in Public Signage: Exploring Lahore’s Linguistic Landscape https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/921 <p>The purpose of this study is to highlight the linguistic landscape of Lahore (Punjab, Pakistan) by covering the discussion regarding the ways of using English language as nativized and localized version. This study is based on different trends of public of using English language in different ways to advertise their agencies (shop names, business centers etc.). To collect the data, three areas of Lahore were selected based on the convenience sampling technique (as data was homogenous across the city) i.e. Thoker Niaz Baig, Township, Anarkali. Purposive sampling was under consideration as only text-based displays were considered to collect the data which showed the use of English language in them. 60 pictures were taken with the help of a digital camera and were made limited to 52 after the refining process. Blurred and repeated photographs were excluded. Analytical parameters of Cenoz &amp; Gorter (2006) were considered to analyze the data. Some guidance in analysis was taken from the study of Landry &amp; Bourhis (1997) regarding the unit of analysis. Only the text of different signboards was considered to analyze. Results revealed the presence of different nativized ways of using English language i.e. direct use of English, Roman English, transliteration and code-mixed English. The study reveals the patterns which are adopted by the public to use English language to display and advertise their businesses and commercials (printed). For future recommendations, linguistic landscape can be studied from the viewpoint of bi/multilingualism, language policy making, cultural integration and to transpire the novice linguistic patterns.</p> Hafiz Syed M. Yasir Amina Khalid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-27 2024-06-27 8 2 245 262 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)24 Impact of Mother Tongue Pronunciation and Motivation on the Speaking Skills of EFL Learners: A Study at BS Level https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/922 <p>The effect of motivation and native-language pronunciation on the oral communication abilities of undergraduate-level English as a foreign language (EFL) students is examined in this study. The purpose of this research is to better understand the challenges these students face while trying to speak English and how their native language influences their pronunciation. Also, the research is aiming to find out how much of an influence mother tongue and motivation to learn English have on EFL students' speaking abilities. In order to accomplish these goals, the researcher meticulously crafted a 33-item questionnaire that focused on mother tongue, motivation, and speaking abilities. In the conclusion, this research gives useful advice for improving EFL students' speaking abilities and shines light on the important topic of mother tongue interference and the influence of motivation on these skills. The results of this study potentially have far-reaching implications for EFL students</p> Sirat Ul Arooj Zohaib Zahid Fozia Ramzan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 8 2 263 272 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)25 Beyond the Barracks: Exploring the Profound Reasons behind Military Intrusion in Politics of Pakistan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/923 <p>This research article examines the complex factors that have led to the persistent involvement of Pakistan’s military in political affairs of the state. This intrusion, which has shaped Pakistan's history since its independence in 1947, cannot be solely attributed to the ambitions of power-hungry generals. Instead, the article argues that it stems from a combination of structural and historical factors. This paper employed a qualitative research methodology while utilizing a critical analysis of historical documents and political discourse. However, the study suggests that there are factors behind military intrusion including Pakistan's weak and fragmented civilian institutions, the military's dominant role in national security, and the country's tumultuous political landscape. The article also highlights the impact of external factors, such as regional conflicts and Cold War dynamics, in shaping the relationship between the military and civilian authorities in Pakistan. By providing a nuanced analysis of the underlying causes of military intervention, the study offer recommendations to reduce the risk of military intrusion in Pakistani politics by strengthening democratic institutions, reforming the military for increased accountability, educating the populace on the risks of military intervention, fostering a culture of tolerance and dialogue while discouraging extremism, and establishing a national consensus on the military's role in a democratic society.</p> Fazeelat Razzaq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 8 2 273 284 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)26 Government Effectiveness and Socio-Economic Equity: An Empirical Analysis of Sustainable Social Protection Systems in Developing Countries Using Two-Step System GMM Econometric Approach https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/924 <p>This paper aims to study the nexus between government effectiveness and socioeconomic equity, which leads to a sustainable social protection system. We have empirically investigated the nexus through a panel data set of 46 developing countries for a period of 20 years. Developing countries face socio-economic inequity due to ineffective government policies leads to the collapse of the social protection system. We have developed an index of sustainable protection systems using the Keyser Meyer Olkin Methodology used as a sampling adequacy. We found a positive association between government effectiveness and social protection systems in developing countries. However, a weak mechanism may cause the poor implementation of sustainable social protection needs utmost policy maneuvers in those countries. There is a need for capacity building of government institutions to improve their effectiveness. Action should be taken that promotes transparency, accountability, and good governance practices.</p> Umar Suffian Ahmad Muhammad Amjad Fakher Muhammad Arif Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 8 2 285 294 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)27 Climate-Induced Vulnerabilities: Conflict and Migration Patterns in the Sahel Region of Africa https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/925 <p>The research aims to explore the complex and interrelated connections of climate change, conflict and migration in the Sahel region. Furthermore, it explores the patterns of human mobility, both internal displacement and cross-border migration, driven by climate-related environmental stressors, food insecurity, and conflict-induced displacement. The Sahel region of Africa stands at the crossroads of intersecting environmental stressors and human mobility, with climate change acting as a catalyst for conflict and migration. Using an interdisciplinary approach, this research synthesizes existing literature and incorporates quantitative analysis, qualitative insights, and geospatial mapping. It highlights case studies to explore the complex relationships between climate change, conflict, and migration in the Sahel. The study identified notable patterns in which environmental stressors, such as droughts, are closely associated with a rise in violence and displacement. The results explain how these stressors increase rivalry for limited resources, therefore intensifying disputes and stimulating migration. To address the challenges the region is facing, implement sustainable resource management and diversified economic opportunities, alongside robust governance to manage conflicts and promote social unity. Enhance community resilience through infrastructure investment and advance research, analytical tools, and multi-level stakeholder engagement for comprehensive problem-solving.</p> Uzma Naz Muhammad Subhan Saleem Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 8 2 295 311 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)28 Climate Change Impacts on Migration, Poverty, and Health Issues in Pakistan: A Comprehensive Analysis https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/926 <p>In recent decades, the world has been facing climate change issues in terms of global warming, heat waves, droughts, and other factors as well. Over the period, climate gradually impacts the globe, particularly in South Asia, and Pakistan is one of those countries that are directly and indirectly affected by climate change, including health, agriculture, water resources, and migration impacts. Climate change has led to extensive challenges, including droughts, heat waves, and global warming, especially in South Asia. Climate change has both direct and indirect effects on Pakistan's health, the agricultural sector, water resources, and migratory patterns. This study aims to emphasize the effects of climate change on immigration, poverty, and health challenges within Pakistan, as well as how it causes property and livelihood losses and harms social well-being. Likewise, this study uses a qualitative method to investigate the socioeconomic elements and national security challenges associated with climate change in Pakistan. It examines the factors that contribute to these effects and investigates how climate hazards serve as catalysts for displacement. The study found that Pakistan's significant reliance on agriculture, along with disastrous floods, exacerbates food insecurity, property loss, poverty, and migration. For instants It also demonstrates that people encounter difficulties while attempting to alter their agricultural techniques. Comprehensive methods and government action are required to alleviate the negative effects of climate change in Pakistan, including food security, property protection, and socioeconomic stability</p> Abdul Aziz Zoonia Naseeb Sawaira Rashid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 8 2 312 325 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)29 Resolution of a Diplomatic Blockade through Multi-Track Diplomacy: A Case Study of Qatar’s Foreign Policy amid its Diplomatic Blockade https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/927 <p>The purpose of this study is to highlight all such restrictions tapping on a state as a tool of diplomacy, done by other states to achieve their self-interests, can be resolved by using different tracks of diplomacy while conducting foreign policy of the state. The most important objective of this research is to establish that different tracks of diplomacy can be adopted to successfully survive a diplomatic blockade. A state can endure a diplomatic blockade by following different tracks of diplomacy in an independent foreign policy. Qatar’s diplomatic blockade is taken as a case study in this research. It is observed that Qatar successfully overcame its diplomatic blockade from 2017 to 2021. This blockade was imposed by some Middle Eastern states.The research approach for the stated issue includes descriptive nature. Primary as well as secondary data sources are used in this research which include research articles, books, observations, newspaper reports, official government statements, and written content. This paper institutes that the modern tools and techniques of diplomacy can help resolve any sudden crisis in an amicable way by applying the means of Multi-track diplomacy.</p> Aniqa Munir Muhammad Farhan Khan Muhammad Jamshaid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 8 2 326 335 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)30 Advancing Good Governance: Leveraging Transparency, Accountability, and Anti-Corruption Measures https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/928 <p>This research examines the interplay between corruption and good governance in the context of developing nations, focusing on Pakistan. Corruption's elusive nature complicates its measurement, but its adverse effects on governance are undeniable, hindering transparency and accountability, which are essential for good governance. Combining qualitative research and data from sources like the World Governance Indicators, the study explores corruption's impact. A small-scale regional comparative analysis and five interviews with public officials from various Pakistani ministries and departments provide additional insights. The findings highlight how corruption impedes governance, affecting transparency and accountability. The study also outlines initiatives by the Pakistani government to combat corruption, positioning Pakistan in the World Governance Indicators and the Transparency Perception Index. Addressing corruption is crucial for fostering effective governance and sustainable development. Proactive measures and public involvement are recommended to curb corruption and enhance governance in Pakistan.</p> Qurat Ul Ain Cheema Maryam Mahnoor Asma Zahid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 8 2 336 352 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)31 Gendered Experiences of Climate Change: A Case Study of Gender Participation in Climate Change Policies in Pakistan (2001-2024) https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/929 <p>In the discourse of water scarcity and gender discrimination, a feminist political ecological lens offers a nuanced understanding of the complex interplay between gender dynamics and water access. Article highlights that historically, despite of bearing multitude water related miseries, women are altogether excluded from national policy formulation processes and there is inequality of women representation in high ranked positions in ministry of water and Irrigation. In this article, mixed methodology has been used. Article has found out that women bearing water burden compounded with domestic violence results into incapability of women to perform their duties, resultantly it encourages the practice of ‘’Water Wives’’ and ‘’Water Laborers’’ . Additionally, on basis of their different biological functioning such as menstruation and pregnancy, water scarcity affect women disproportionately. Article suggests that, in water policy formulation, women role should not be compartmentalized only as beneficiaries. Their contribution should be recognized as water drivers, as only such measures can achieve water security.</p> Aqsa Aslam Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 8 2 354 363 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)32 The Influence of Mother Tongue on English Pronunciation: A Case Study in District Rahim Yar Khan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/930 <p>This research paper investigates the significant influence of mother tongue on English pronunciation among secondary level learners in District Rahim Yar Khan, where Punjabi and Saraiki languages are predominantly spoken as the native tongues. The study aims to explore the common pronunciation problems faced by these learners and identify the role of their mother tongue in shaping their English pronunciation. Additionally, the research seeks to propose effective remedial measures of proper learning to overcome these pronunciation challenges. To achieve these objectives, the researcher conducted sound recordings of secondary school students, focusing on a carefully selected word list of 100 words from the 9th and 10th-grade English textbooks. These recordings were analyzed using Phon software, enabling the identification of the most affected phones and phoneme. Ultimately, this study sheds light on the crucial issue of mother tongue interference in English pronunciation among secondary-level learners in District Rahim Yar Khan.</p> Saeed Ahmad Zohaib Zahid Fozia Ramzan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 8 2 364 373 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)33 Decoding Joycean Narrative: Barthesian Analysis of Eveline https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/932 <p>This objective of this paper is to decode the story in Eveline by James Joyce based on the study of a narrative code by Roland Barthes. The study identifies and analyzes the five narrative codes as delineated by Barthes five codes, namely, the Hermeneutic Code, the Proairetic Code, the Semantic Code, the Symbolic Code, and the Cultural Code. The methodology utilized is qualitative and content analysis is used. Through the use of these codes, the research reveals the important structures to come up with the thematic appeal and the emotions of the plot. Thus, the narrative of this research contributes to expanding the understanding of Joyce’s skill and the relevance of Eveline to the modernist tradition. The conclusion also emphasize the usefulness of Barthes’ theoretical model in deeper comprehension of the literary works as well as the number of their meanings.</p> Muhammad Ihsan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 8 2 374 382 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)34 Ganeshananthan’s Brotherless Night: A Fictive Site to Recount Evisceration of Human Rights During the Sri Lankan Civil War https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/933 <p>This paper closely reads V.V. Ganeshananthan’s Brotherless Night (2023) as a fictive literary memorial site of twenty-six years long Sri Lankan Civil War. The paper draws its theoretical framework from Pramod K. Nayar’s (2016) concept of Human Rights Literature (HRL). The paper, contextualizing the living conditions of Tamils in predominantly Sinhalese Buddhist Sri Lanka, brings to the fore the atrocious violation of basic civil and human rights of Sri Lankan Tamils. The study makes it obvious that the Sri Lankan Civil War observed the complex historical marginalization of Tamils through massive genocide, exclusion from national mainstream and abdication of rights to grow. The paper, putting the fictive character of Sashi, at the heart of the study, manifests the novel’s agenda to explore turbulent history and precarious repercussions of Sri Lankan Civil War as the ugliest chapter of Sri Lankan national history.</p> Aamer Shaheen Muhammad Salman Sadia Qamar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 8 2 383 393 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)35 The Growing Chinese Interests in the Middle East: Prospects of Saudi-Iran Rapprochement https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/934 <p>The paper aims to study the Chinese growing interests in the Middle east and its implications for Saudi-Iran rapprochement. For the exceptional rise of China and its energy requirements the Middle East stands one of the most attractive destinations for its foreign policy. The recently held Sino-Arab Summit reflects Beijing's growing interests and influence in the region. Major focus of the Arab-Chinese ties lies in economic development and peaceful resolution of the regional disputes. Beijing mediated the restoration of Riyadh-Tehran diplomatic ties between the two ideological rivals, representing opposing Islamic sects - Sunni and Shia Muslims. The data has been mainly collected through secondary sources with exploratory research design. The Saudi-Iran conflictual ties can hinder Chinese trade and investment in the Middle East therefore, it has keenly assisted the Saudi-Iran rapprochement. Iran and Saudia need to capitalize Chinese growing economic and political interests in the Middle East that will be helpful for the regional and global peace and stability.</p> Hassan Farooq Mashwani Abdul Waheed Samiya Shahzad Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 8 2 394 405 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)36 Exploring Societal Constructs through Marriage Discourses: A Critical Analysis of Jane Austen’s Emma https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/935 <p>This research study presents a Critical Discourse Analysis of Jane Austen's 18th-century novel Emma by employing a qualitative methodological approach. Utilizing Van Dijk's (1995) Socio-cognitive model, the analysis is conducted at the Macrostructure level which allows for the interpretation of the novel's meanings and themes. The study specifically examines dialogues related to the theme of marriage by extracting the concerned excerpts from the text. Through this analysis, the research uncovers the underlying ideologies concerning marriage as presented by female authors of the period. The results indicate that Austen's portrayal of marriage reflects a societal context in which women are systematically underprivileged and subject to male dominance. This suggests that Emma not only offers a narrative about individual characters but also provides a broader commentary on the gender inequalities prevalent in the 18th century. The study thus contributes to the understanding of how literature can mirror and critique social realities particularly concerning women's roles within the institution of marriage.</p> Sana Tariq Syed Kazim Shah Muhammad Ilyas Mahmood Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 8 2 406 414 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)37 Political Uncertainty and its Economic Toll: An In-depth Analysis of Pakistan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/936 <p>The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of political uncertainty on Pakistan’s economy. Pakistan is grappling with the worst kind of economic crunch due to the cycle of political vengeance. The paper discusses the historical developments that how the country has been plowed by the constant cycle of changing regimes during the muddling nineties and Flat fifties. The constant power struggle and frightened political environment have deterred both domestic and foreign investors. In this research paper, qualitative research method has been used which includes data from research articles, journals, opinions and books. The piece highlights the severe consequences, including energy outages, reduced purchasing power, and mounting inflation due to inconsistent policies and governance anomalies. The path forward lies in establishing a consistent economic policy framework by appointing non-partisan economists and state leaders must address structural reforms as these two solutions are the only pathway towards economic stability.</p> Sanan Hassan Muhammad Farhan Khan Hamna Khalid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-02 2024-07-02 8 2 415 423 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)38 Impact of Short Videos on Political Information and Participation of Teens https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/937 <p>The field of visual communication suggests that the use of imaginative visuals like images, videos, and graphics might potentially influence the perceptions and attitudes of the general public including teenagers. These teenagers have access to social media platforms and spend most of their time watching short videos. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of political short videos on political information and participation of teenagers. A quantitative survey research methodology approach is used with a sample size of (N = 250) Teens. Major findings of the study proved that exposure to short videos in the form of TikTok Videos, YouTube Shorts, Facebook, and Instagram Reels is one of the major sources of information for teens and political information and political participation of teens. These teenagers are very aware of political data and information which helps them actively participate in political activities, and discussions. The government and educational institutions may develop a strategy to help teenagers better understand the political system, which will encourage the positive use of social media.</p> Rana Umair Nadeem Iffat Masood Waqas Mahmood Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-02 2024-07-02 8 2 424 433 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)39 Technological Leapfrogging: Estonia’s E-Governance Odyssey by using Emerging Technologies and Lesson for Developing States https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/938 <p>The purpose of this study to highlights the journey of Estonia’s e-governance system by launching the Tiger Leap initiative and to examines Estonia’s innovative initiatives comprising, e-banking, digital identity infrastructure (e-ID) and X road system. The main objective of this research is to address the privacy and security issues of Estonian e-services through emerging technologies i.e. Artificial Intelligence and Block chain technology. In the realm of the digital age, Estonia stands out as a pioneer in using Block chain technology and Artificial Intelligence to augment its e-governance framework. A small Baltic state stirred towards the transformation in the early 1990s through digitization and digitalization respectively. The explanatory approach of qualitative research is used and data sampling for this research is conducted by using secondary sources of data consisting of official reports, journal articles, official websites and documents. It provides policies that underdeveloped states can augment their e-governance by using these advance technologies.</p> Hamna Khalid Muhammad Farhan Khan Summaiyya Qureshi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-02 2024-07-02 8 2 406 414 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)40 Examining the Stress Patterns followed by Urdu Speakers Learning English in English Department at UOK https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/939 <p>This study aims to investigate the stress patterns followed by the Urdu Speakers learning English in the English Department at University of Kotli (UOK). This study throws light on how students break words into syllables and the approaches they use in navigating this area, and explores the influence of the Urdu language on the stress patterns spoken by the students of the English Department while speaking English. Urdu is the native language of the inhabitants of Kashmir and so it has deep influence on the speech patterns of speakers especially while learning second language. The researcher wants to find the influence of native language of participants, which is Urdu, on the target language, which is English because no work has been done in this regard. The researcher conducted interviews and recorded the answers on a cell phone using sound recorder software and provided the participants with a text to read so that the researcher could get a deeper insight into how they produce stress while pronouncing a particular word. The results of this study reveal the complexities involved in acquisition and production of the English stress patterns of Urdu speakers of English</p> Zahra Imtiaz Muniba Zahra Harina Afsar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-07 2024-07-07 8 2 445 453 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)41 Communication Under Surveillance: An analysis of Decaying Lifeworld in Home Fire https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/940 <p>This article aims to explore the decay of the lifeworld in Kamila Shamsie’s novel Home Fire under post-9/11 surveillance and systemic pressures (financial and administrative). The recent surge in migration to Western countries due to new waves of civil unrest, such as those in Syria, has made Muslim immigrant communities more susceptible to surveillance. Using a hybrid theoretical framework rooted in Habermas’ concept of lifeworld colonization and Foucault’s rendition of panoptic surveillance, this article closely analyzes interpersonal communication among fictional characters to understand the connection between the perpetuation of dominant ideologies and the communicative bond necessary for interpersonal relationships. The analysis identifies a lack of cultural bonding and the pervasive administrative gaze working hand in hand. The sinister influence and insidious workings of power structures manifest tangibly in the characters' disinterest in interpersonal communication. This work might motivate future research to utilize fiction to understand chronic sociological issues faced by immigrants.</p> Urooj Waheed Munawar Iqbal Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-08 2024-07-08 8 2 454 464 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)42 Examining Language Features in Plath’s Poetry: A Feministic Stylistic Analysis https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/941 <p>The present study aims to examine the figurative language of the selected poems of Plath to reveal the way, the poetess conveyed the target meanings to the readers. A sample of three particular poems written by Plath has been taken through purposive sampling technique. Meanwhile, Leech and Short's (2006) stylistics model has been applied as the framework of this study. Hence, the results show the constant use of certain stylistic features done by Plath like simile, metaphor, imagery, personification and symbols to highlight the sufferings of women in contemporary society. Moreover, the researcher is hopeful that the particular study will not only motivate the future researchers to examine some other work of Plath but will also leave a ground to reinvestigate the findings of this study itself.</p> Rafia Iqbal Hamimah Ashraf Muhammad Farooq Javeed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-08 2024-07-08 8 2 465 472 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)43 Unique Expressions in Pakistani English: A Corpus-based Analysis of Pakistani English Novels https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/942 <p>This study aims to highlight the unique expressions in Pakistani English Novels. Background research indicates that Pakistani English, a distinct variety of English, has unique features which are not present in other English varieties. &nbsp;The study analyzes a corpus of Pakistani English novels to identify these distinctive features using an exploratory sequential mixed-method design. Quantitative data analysis was conducted with Antconc software to generate concordances and word lists, and qualitative content analysis provided an in-depth text interpretation. The findings of this study reveal unique expressions exclusive to Pakistani English, highlighting its distinctiveness. This study is valuable to students, teachers, and linguistics researchers as it offers insights into Pakistani English used in novels and emphasize its unique features. Recommendations include expanding the PNE corpus to encompass a broader range of Pakistani English novels and conducting in-depth studies on the authorial styles of prominent Pakistani writers to uncover their unique contributions.</p> Areej Areej Rabia Naeem Mariam Mehardin Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-08 2024-07-08 8 2 473 486 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)44 Postcolonial Flaneur: A Critical Analysis of Spatial-Cultural Narratives in Rizwan Akhtar’s (2017) Lahore, I Am Coming https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/944 <p>This research, through the critical analysis of Rizwan Akhtar’s (2017) poetry collection Lahore, I Am Coming, employs the subjective interpretations of the postcolonial flâneur to unveil the city’s complex cultural narratives of postcolonial Lahore. In the face of rapid urban transformations, documenting the spatial practices of postcolonial flâneur becomes crucial for investigating the repercussions of colonialism on the cultural fabric of Lahore. The study employs qualitative approach to explore the spatial practices and cultural narratives of postcolonial flâneur prevalent in Akhtar’s (2017) Lahore, I Am Coming. By employing the lens of postcolonial flaneur, the findings of this study reveals the intricate influence of space on its culture that ultimately effects the psyche of the inhabitants of postcolonial space. As the exploration of Pakistani landscapes remains relatively unexplored in the domain of flâneurism. Thereto, future scholarly research should prioritize exploring these landscapes which can unearth nuanced narratives of the pre-colonial past and the repercussions of colonialism on Pakistan's postcolonial spaces. By doing so, future studies can contribute to a broader and more profound understanding of the diverse and complex identities that define the postcolonial experience in South Asia.</p> Iqra Farooq Ayesha Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-08 2024-07-08 8 2 487 503 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)45 Matricentric Feminism in Janice Y.K. Lee’s The Expatriates https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/945 <p>Matricentric feminism or a feminism for mothers deals with the politics that mothers face in diverse patriarchal cultures. The present research explores the matricentric interests and the subject of demarcated role of mothers through the themes of identity, marriage, family and the idiosyncratic concerns about motherhood by examining the novel The Expatriates (2016) by Janice Y.K. Lee. The study continues the matricentric debate by analysing the two characters of the novel, Margaret Reade and Hilary Starr. The main aim of this research is to examine the oppressed, dependent, static and lost identity of mothers even in the developing world. This article argues that the mothers, despite belonging to the upper crust of society, are not immune to the tragedies and psychological oppression in the post-racial Asian American world and that they are oppressed first as women and then as mothers. It refocuses on the restricted role, identity and position of mothers in the privileged yet patriarchal society. By using the method of textual analysis, the article analyzes the selected novel under the Matricentric ideas of Andrea O’Reilly and Petra Bueskens. The research thus concludes that a mother leads traumatic life due to loss of her child, and despite having other children, patriarchal society rusticates her status of motherhood. For future research, the article recommends to analyse the novel under psychoanalytic or trauma theories.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tayyiba Maryam Farkhanda Shahid Khan Sehrish Zahra Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-08 2024-07-08 8 2 504 514 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)46 Subject-Verb Agreement: A Case Study of BS English Students https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/946 <p>This study is aimed to examine the types of written subject verb agreement mistakes made by the students enrolled in BS English program. Second purpose of this study was to check mastering subject verb concord depends whether on language exposure or grip on language. There has been profound research on the reasons of mistakes made by students in subject verb agreement but none has touched upon what sort of mistakes students make mostly, particularly in University of kotli.A study at the University of Kotli has been conducted to examine the subject-verb agreement errors made by students in the BS 5th and BS 1st semesters. Researchers utilized essay writing as their research tool and adopted a qualitative research method. The study's findings indicate that the majority of errors, particularly omissions, were made by BS English 5th semester students. The proportion of students making omission errors is higher than those making misinformation errors, with addition errors being the least common. The results indicate that 5th semester students still struggle with subject-verb agreement, making more errors than 1st semester BS English students despite having more language exposure.</p> Zoya Jabeen Javeria Qamar Muhammad Shabbir Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-10 2024-07-10 8 2 515 521 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)47 Marxist Study of Wilde’s The Birthday of the Infanta https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/947 <p>The present study probes class disparity in Oscar Wilde’s short story The Birthday of the Infanta from the perspective of Marxism. Oscar Wilde is a prolific writer who also penned fairytales for children. Outwardly, these fairytales are bed time stories for children. In reality, they are multilayered like an iceberg providing various interpretations and meanings. They meticulously address the class discrepancy and other socio-economic predicaments of the era. One of his short stories is analyzed with the theoretical lens of Karl Marx. This study is accomplished employing Marx’s viewpoint of the Bourgeois and the Proletariat to analyze the class bigotry prevailing in the short story, The Birthday of the Infanta. Researchers in the past have conducted their research on different short stories of Oscar Wilde from Marxist perspective but this particular work has not been analyzed earlier. This study will add to the contributions made by previous researchers and it will help the future researchers to conduct research from the Marxist standpoint. This study also accentuates the class distinction existing in the era of Oscar Wilde.</p> Sadia Waheed Amani Sharif Ramsha Saif Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-12 2024-07-12 8 2 522 533 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)48 Hybridity and Resistance: Exploring Cultural Identity in The Reluctant Fundamentalist https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/948 <p>This research article examines the complex interplay of hybridity, identity, and resistance in Mohsin Hamid’s novel The Reluctant Fundamentalist. Through the protagonist Changez, the narrative explores the dichotomy between traditional Pakistani culture and Western modernity. The analysis delves into Changez’s struggle with his dual identity, shaped by his Pakistani roots and American education. The novel highlights the tension between cultural assimilation and resistance as Changez navigates the stereotypes and expectations imposed by both societies. His journey underscores the impact of colonial education and the lingering effects of colonialism on identity formation. The article also addresses the broader implications of cultural hybridity, emphasizing the challenges of maintaining a cohesive identity amidst conflicting cultural influences. This study contributes to the understanding of post-colonial identity and the ongoing struggle for self-definition in a globalized world. Future research should explore similar themes in other contemporary works to further elucidate the dynamics of cultural hybridity and resistance.</p> Toqeer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-12 2024-07-12 8 2 534 542 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)49 U.S.-Pakistan Relations: Assessing Pakistan's Role in U.S. Strategy for South Asia https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/949 <p>This work analyzed the relationship between the United States and Pakistan with consideration of Pakistan’s strategic position in US South Asian strategy. For most of the Cold War, Pakistan aided the United States and, more recently, it has cooperated in counter-terrorism after the September 11 attacks. Based on secondary data sources included historical records, policy documents, and journal articles, the study have found that Pakistan had important role in Afghanistan stability, counter-terrorism cooperation , and in US-China relations despite the low level of trust between two countries. With regard to relation, the research suggested counter terrorism cooperation, deepening economic cooperation through TIFA, and raising diplomacy to manage geo strategic rivalry with China to move forward towards establishing healthier and beneficial partnership.</p> Ashfaq Ahmed Malik Mustanjim Ur Rehman Muhammad Abubaker Umer Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-13 2024-07-13 8 2 543 553 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)50 Eco-Translatology: A Study of Adaptation and Selection in the Urdu and Pashto Translations of Ghani Khan’s The Pathans: A Sketch https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/950 <p>The purpose of this research is to analyze the Urdu and Pashto translations of The Pathans: A Sketch from an Eco-Translatological perspective which is based on Darwin's theory of "survival of the fittest". The study follows qualitative method, and the mentioned translations are used as data source. Additionally, secondary sources are also consulted. This research focuses on three-dimensional transformation in translation, namely, linguistic, cultural, and communicative. It assesses the degree of adaptability of translators to the eco-environment of translation. It is evident from the findings that the translators have adapted to the ecology of the target texts from three dimensions (linguistic, cultural, and communicative) by using different strategies to adapt and select components from the text as per the requirement of eco-environment of translation. As for the degree of adaptation, a comparison of the two translations shows that the Urdu translator has a greater degree of adaptation than the Pashto translator, and the purpose of adaptation is to enhance the readability of the target text. This study has implications for translation studies and teaching.</p> Samra Bahisht Liaqat Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 8 2 554 568 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)51 Civil-Military Discordance and The Political Culture of Pakistan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/955 <p>Throughout history, the relationship between civilian governments and military institutions has been debated. Scholars like Huntington emphasized division of powers, while Schiff advocated collaboration. Pakistan's weak democratic foundation has led to struggles between governmental power and public demands. Unique challenges, including conflict with India and historical inequities, have amplified the military's political role, particularly due to the Kashmir conflict. Recent events, like the 2014 protests, strained civil-military relations, exacerbated by social media. This article uses mixed methods to assess trust between civilians and the military and explores expert insights into civil-military relations. The main objective of the article is to determine how a weak political culture has led to strained civil-military relations in Pakistan. Findings of the article indicate urban dissatisfaction with military politics and disillusionment with government and judiciary. The article recommends that improving relations requires a new political agreement, redefined military roles, more democratic political parties, a stronger Parliament, and enhanced civic culture, underdeveloped since 1947.</p> Dua Hamid Javaria Shaikh Asia Mukhtar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-19 2024-07-19 8 2 569 581 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)52 Deciphering Modi’s Hindutva and Emerging Transnational Security Threats: The BJP’s Hindu Nationalism in The Light of Regional and Global Security Perspectives https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/957 <p>This paper examines the emerging trends of transnational security threats based on the ideological orientations of Hindutva. The major variables of the study revolve around the politico-religious beliefs of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Bharatya Janata Party (BJP) respectively. In addition, the researchers have also investigated the factors which collaborate to spread the toxic right wing Hindu religious fundamentalism abroad. There are multiple aspects intertwined with the transnational security threats which are deep rooted in, contemporary, Modi’s India. In recent decades, however, the status of India as a secular state is under threat due to rising preponderance of the Hindutva ideology through the entrenched rule of the Bharatya-Janata Party (BJP) and its Prime Minister, Narendra Modi. BJP as the political arm of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), an organization dedicated to socially bifurcating India between a superior (according to themselves) Hindu class and inferior minorities, the party espouses Hindu nationalism, or Hindutva.</p> Muhammad Farhan Khan Iram Khalid Muhammad Jamshaid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-07-22 2024-07-22 8 2 582 590 10.47205/plhr.2024(8-II-S)53