Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review (PLHR) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. PLHR is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes <strong>Quarterly</strong>. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> en-US <p><img src="https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/public/site/images/adminplhr/open-access.png" alt="" width="500" height="200" /></p> <p><strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC)</strong> &amp; <strong>PAKISTAN LANGUAGES AND HUMANITIES REVIEW (PLHR)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>PLHR</strong> agree to the <strong>copyright policy</strong> under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>PLHR</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>PLHR</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC)</strong> &amp; <strong>PAKISTAN LANGUAGES AND HUMANITIES REVIEW (PLHR)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access</strong> Policy for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></p> <p><a href="https://sfdora.org/"><img src="https://plhr.org.pk/images/signatory-of-dora.png" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> editor@plhr.org.pk (Dr. Tariq Hussain) editor.plhr@gmail.com (Dr. Rizwana Umair) Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Utilization of Meta-discourse Markers in Theses: An Analysis of Abstracts and Conclusions https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/716 <p>The present study aims to explore the use of meta-discourse markers in abstract and conclusion sections of 20 theses submitted by M. Phil English students of Qurtuba University D. I. Khan, Pakistan. Meta-discourse markers in communication and academic writing have become the chief concern in recent years. This research utilisez Hyland's model of meta-discourse markers that help to create an understanding for readers to explore the genre, social and contextual backgrounds of text in the domain of academic writing. The mixed-method approach was used to explore the most frequent meta-discourse categories as well as the deeper meaning behind the construction of language. The exploration came in the form of sentences and examples to negotiate the non-native writers' use of meta-discourse. It was found that the members who have gone through the treatment of language approach were in a situation in fostering their insight with regards to lexical collocation. The implications of this research extend beyond a mere exploration of linguistic nuances; understanding how meta-discourse functions in the context of the abstract and conclusion sections can offer valuable insights into the rhetorical strategies employed by authors to convey the significance of their research and summarize key findings.</p> Sabahat Batool, Dr. Muhammad Ajmal, Yasir Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/716 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Exploring the Relationship between Language Learning and Identity Reconstruction at the University of Lahore, Pakistan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/717 <p>The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how the language learners of The University of Lahore (UOL) perceived the connection between English language learning and reconstructing their identities. Twelve undergraduate English as a foreign language (EFL) students were the participants of focus groups that were conducted in order to collect data. Norton’s poststructuralist and Social Identity theory was used as a theoretical framework to explain the impact of foreign language learning on students’ identities on the basis of social factors that affect a person’s identity after learning a language through this qualitative research. The overwhelming majority of students believed that their perception of their identity was significantly influenced by studying English. The vast majority of those who participated in the interviews indicated a high level of gratitude for this particular influence, appreciating its enormous worth and support throughout their language-learning journeys. Those interviewed had also shown a strong drive to assimilate and a desire to conform to the target language and its associated cultural norms. The results emphasize the significance of motivation and the crucial role that English as a world language plays in influencing how one perceives, redefines, and reconstructs their identity.</p> Hina Ameen, Rida Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/717 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Gender Disparities in Access to Agricultural Modes of Production and Impediments in rural Women Empowerment https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/718 <p>The objective of this research is to investigate the intricate relationship between gender inequality and limited access to fundamental agricultural resources such as land, seeds, fertilizer, credit, technology, and training, along with the ultimate impact on rural women's empowerment. Gender disparities in access to the agricultural modes of production are recognizing as an essential impediment to rural women's empowerment in Pakistan. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in research. A multistage sampling technique was used to take the sample from this study. The total sample size was 180 respondents. Data was collected through an Interview schedule by using a questionnaire. The statistical tool for social sciences, SPSS, was used to analyze the data. The data indicate that more than half women in the Gujranwala district of Pakistan do not have access to agricultural modes of production. Policy interventions should be prioritized by giving women fair access to land, seed, fertilizer, financing, technology, and training, as well as fighting against discriminatory practices.</p> Hira Nasir, Farkhanda Anjum, Kanawal Asghar Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/718 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Exploring Parental Beliefs and Intervention Strategies for Children with Disabilities https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/731 <p>This study delves into parental beliefs regarding disabilities and their consequential impact on intervention strategies for children with various disabilities—Hearing Impairment, Visual Impairment, Mental Retardation, and Physical Impairment. Utilizing a qualitative approach, the research sought to gather comprehensive insights into these beliefs. The sample comprised purposefully selected parents of children with disabilities, employing semi-structured interviews to extract nuanced information. A total of 40 parents, 10 from each disability category, were part of this study. The findings unearthed a profound understanding of parental perspectives on their child's disability, societal encounters related to their child's condition, specific intervention strategies adopted, and parental satisfaction with the chosen interventions. Moreover, the study uncovered diverse fears concerning the future of both genders, influencing parental perceptions of disability, some viewing it as a reward while others as a punishment, thereby impacting the selection of interventions.</p> Tehseen Mushtaq, Dr. Zahida Parveen, Mehwish Kamal Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/731 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 An Analysis of Discursive Manipulative Strategies and Rhetorical Devices in Political Interviews of Ousted Prime Minister Imran Khan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/735 <p>This study analyses Imran Khan's conversation by focusing on discursive manipulative strategies, polarisation strategies and rhetorical devices with Marc Fennell of ABC Australia, his Interview on CNN with Becky Anderson and Sky News U.K. and his response to losing the government and accusing the U.S. of his regime change. The study aims to evaluate the potential impact of such strategies on public opinion and discourse and to help develop awareness to counter manipulative practices in political interviews. Using a qualitative approach and integrating social identity theory and self-categorisation theory, the study identifies logical fallacies, emotional and loaded language, and diversionary techniques as the most frequently used manipulative strategies. It also highlights the effectiveness of emotionally charged language and rhetorical devices in swaying public opinion. The study concludes that politicians worldwide use similar techniques and rhetorical devices to persuade, guide, or manipulate the public and provide insights into the nature of political discourse in Pakistan.</p> Muhammad Matloob Ur Rasool, Arfa Naeem, Ayesha Saif Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/735 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Effect of Digital Stress on Students’ Online Learning Readiness: University Students’ Standpoint https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/737 <p>Digital stress has significant effect on students’ online learning readiness. The main aim of this study was to examine university students’ standpoint concerning effect of digital stress on their online learning readiness. Data were collected from 509 participants enrolled in two universities, located in Khyber Pakhtunkhaw who were selected randomly. A survey questionnaire, consisted of two scales, digital stress scale and online learning readiness scale were used to measure the perceptions of students. To analyze the collected data, Mean score, Standard Deviation, Pearson’s correlation and Regression analysis were applied. Results of the study revealed that students strongly agreed that digital stress had an effect on their online learning readiness with mean score higher 4.00. All the four hypotheses of the study were accepted which indicate that mode of delivery (r=.960), comfort level (=.918), capacity to learn (r=.833), and learning atmosphere (r=.712) had strong effect on online learning readiness of students in the context of Pakistan. It is concluded that digital stress is a strong predictor of online learning readiness of university students. Policy makers and developers may focus on this important issue while developing policies or developing curriculum for online education. Further studies are recommended to test these results in other contexts. Since this study, was confined to Malakand region, researchers may investigate other variables such as gender, ethnic differences or region wise effect of the variables to have wider understanding of the issue.</p> Jebran Zeb, Dr. Iqbal Ahmad, Dr. Farah Deeba Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/737 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Unveiling Trauma's Echo: Exploring the Impact of Traumatic Events on the Psyche of Sitara Zamani in 'Sparks like Stars' https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/738 <p>The present study aims to focus on the traumatic events that occurred in the life of a young Afghan girl. All of a sudden, her life changes as she undergoes many traumatic events that badly affect her psyche. In this article, the inspection of challenges experienced by Hashimi’s protagonist to come out from her childhood memories and to live a normal life will be conducted. The research begins with an introduction to the novel and the theory; a discussion follows the analysis of the selected text. The insights of this article have been taken from Freud’s psychoanalytical Trauma theory (1990) and some aspects of the Trauma theory, which was put forth by Cathy Caruth in 1995 have also been incorporated. The present research uses a descriptive qualitative method by relying majorly on Hashimi’s novel "Sparks Like Stars" (2021) and other sources that evaluate the same issue as Hashimi did. The research ends with a conclusion that sums up the outcomes which validates the hypothesis. Taking everything into account, the findings might prove that Trauma Theory can be used in analyzing and appreciating many other literary texts dealing with the themes of loss, trauma, and nostalgia.</p> Muzaffar Qadir Bhatti, Ayesha Komal, Syeda Masooma Zahra Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/738 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Targeting Women's Healthism through DTCA: A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis of CaC-1000 PLUS Tablet Advertisement https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/739 <p>The present study is the investigation of CaC-1000 PLUS Tablet Advertisement using the multimodal lens. The aim of the research is to investigate how direct-to-consumer advertisement serves the purpose of promoting explicit ideology, which is healthism, and implicit ideology, which is sales and brand enhancement. For this purpose, Kress and van Leuween's Metafunctional Theory of Visual Grammar (2006), divided into three main functions: representational, interactional, and compositional, is applied to the selected part of the video. The findings revealed that the CaC tablet advertisement represents a female actress as a represented participant to show unity with the targeted female audience. At the representation stage, apart from female representation, different processes, circumstances, classification, analytical, and symbolic features are consciously designed to stress the use of Cac-1000 plus. This conscious attempt is visible in the represented participant's gestures, words, setting, and structural arrangements. Persuasion for using calcium supplements is also reinforced through different interactional features. The main represented participant (Kubra Khan) maintains close personal distance and demands gaze from the viewers through frontal and eye level angles in interaction to compel the viewers to pay heed to the message of healthism. The highest modality is utilized to make the advertisement look naturalistic. The advertisement's composition focused on using CaC tablets as the right solution to escape pain and Osteoporosis and making the women believe that they are "stepping up." In sum, this article tries to show how ideologies can be traced from advertisements through multimodal critical discourse analysis.</p> Hafiz Dr. Abdul Haseeb Hakimi, Sundas Rafique, Faheem Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/739 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Language Barriers to Effective Communication in Speaking English: A Phenomenological Study of Pakistan International Cricketers https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/740 <p>This study examines language barriers to effective communication in speaking English among internal cricket players of Pakistan. The study discovers various language communication barriers to maintain effective English speaking communication between players and coaches and root causes of those barriers. Six international cricket players are selected to collective qualitative data for the research. The technique of semi-structured interview is adopted to enrich the research data. The data is analyzed with the help of theoretical framework of Braun &amp; Clarke (2006). The findings describe those language barriers to effective excommunication in speaking English play very important role in their professional growth of participants. Further, this study’s findings suggest establishing basic English language communication classes at regional level cricket academies for junior cricketers to improve their basic English language communication skills to meet with future English language communication issues.</p> Khalid Mehmood, Shumaila Memon, Fayaz Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/740 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 ESL Teachers’ Perceptions about ChatGPT as a Threat to Analytical Writing Abilities of ESL Learners at Graduate Level https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/741 <p>This study is aimed at exploring the perceptions of ESL teachers about ChatGPT as a detriment to analytical writing skills of graduate students. Since the inception of ChatGPT, an AI-powered tool, the argumentative and critical thinking skills of ESL learners are adversely affected. Analytical writing skill is an essential and valuable academic skill that a learner needs to master. The study is descriptive quantitative in nature with a closed-ended questionnaire as a research tool. Data comprises of a purposive sample of 30 ESL teachers from various public sector universities of Pakistan. Data is analysed via SPSS version 25 where tables are drawn to represent the statistical findings. Results of the study conclude that incorporation of ChatGPT has become a challenge in ESL classrooms because learners have become prone to malpractices of generating content from ChatGPT and plagiarising the subject matter. Consequently, analytical writing skills of ESL students are deteriorating. Theoretical underpinnings of the study are based upon TPACK framework by Mishra and Koehler (2006). The study a recommends institutes to ensure strict plagiarism policies to avoid malpractices of copy-pasting. Moreover, the study recommends ESL teachers to incorporate classroom tasks in order to promote creative ideation among learners.</p> Ezzah Shakil, Dr. Sadaf Siddiq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/741 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Psychoanalytic Analysis of Ambrose Bierce's The Boarded Window (1891) https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/742 <p>This study examines Ambrose Bierce's "The Boarded Window" through psychoanalytic analysis, based on the seminal writings of Sigmund Freud and his daughter Anna Freud. The study goes into the protagonist, Murlock's, psychological subtleties, studying parts of the conscious and unconscious, dreams and reality, as well as protective mechanisms. The analysis reveals the impact of Freudian notions on Murlock's behavior through qualitative research and paying close attention to textual reading, elucidating themes of repression, regression, and displacement. The main goals are to investigate the essential features of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis in the short tale and to examine the significance of Anna Freud's defense mechanisms to the narrative. The results show a complex interplay of unconscious processes, dreams as a portal to suppressed realities, and the expression of defense systems in Murlock's mind. This study adds to our understanding of how psychoanalytic theories benefit literary interpretation, particularly in the context of Ambrose Bierce's terrifying narrative.</p> Muskan Fatima, Suhail Ahmed Solangi, Riaz Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/742 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Identification of Teachers’ Professional Challenges about Content Knowledge and Managerial Matters at Secondary Level https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/743 <p>The present research study as an effort to identify the teachers’ professional challenges regarding the knowledge of managerial matters at secondary level. For this purpose, researchers used quantitative as well as qualitative method for this survey and descriptive nature study. The explanatory sequential technique was used. The population of the study comprised; head teachers (HT), secondary school teachers (SSTs), students of secondary classes (SSCs). The stratified sampling technique was adopted for the proposed study. The desired data will be collected from Tehsil Rahim Yar Khan. The sample size of the study comprised 48 secondary school head teachers with the same ratio of male and female 144 secondary school teachers, 426 students of secondary classes with the same ratio of gender and locality. The questionnaires were developed for data collection from HT, SSTs and Secondary School Students. The study recommends that professional trainings for secondary school teachers must be organized for tackling content knowledge challenges, pedagogical difficulties and managerial challenges of secondary school teachers.</p> Atia Mumtaz, Dr. Jam Muhammad Zafar, Dr. Shazia Andleeb Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/743 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 An Analysis of Social Class Effects on Individual's Response to Linguistic Processes https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/744 <p>This study analysis how a person's socioeconomic standing affects language uses, interpretation, and communication patterns, delving into the complex relationship between social class and individual responses to linguistic processes. The study takes a multifaceted approach, integrating sociolinguistics, psychology, and sociology to clarify the complex relationship between linguistic behaviors and social class. The study starts with a look at language as a social construct, recognizing that language both shapes and is a reflection of social institutions. Based on well-established theories of language and social class, the research looks at how language choices can be markers of social identity and play a role in maintaining or upending class-based inequalities. Additionally, the study looks into the psychological components of language processing, examining the ways in which people from various socioeconomic backgrounds could react differently to language inputs in their cognitive processes. In order to have a thorough grasp of the various ways that social class might influence linguistic cognition, the research combines qualitative and quantitative approaches, such as participant interviews, cognitive experiments, and linguistic analysis.</p> Muhammad Ismail Rahu, Riaz Hussain, Saleemullah Channa Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/744 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Analyzing Legal Drafting: Legal Discourse Study on Crimes against Women in Pakistan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/745 <p>The primary objective of this research is to examine the legal discourse employed in drafting related to crimes against women, specifically focusing on reported cases. This qualitative study entails the analysis of legal drafting, incorporating interviews with judges. Applying Fairclough's three-dimensional model for analysis, the research reveals that while legal language has its unique format, it often carries stereotypical implications favouring men, possibly influenced by Pakistan's deeply ingrained patriarchal system. Despite notable changes in language and laws favouring women over the past two decades, patriarchal dominance remains a significant barrier to women seeking justice. Respecting the rights and dignity of all litigants is crucial for a fair legal system, fostering equality and justice in the courtroom discourse of Pakistan. Crimes against women in Pakistan persist as a concerning issue, encompassing various forms of violence and discrimination. Addressing this challenge requires concerted efforts in legal frameworks, societal awareness, and support systems for victims.</p> Fariah Farooq Khan, Badriah Khaleel Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/745 Tue, 02 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The process of Individuation of the Main Character in Hermann Hesse’s Demian https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/746 <p>This article is an attempt to analyze the process of individuation of the main character. The process of individuation means to know oneself. The novel is the main source of data collection. Books, research articles are secondary sources. This research is qualitative. Research approach is inductive. Research technique is interpretive content analysis. The current study indicates that psychological strength of all human beings is intertwined with the socially undesirable contents of personality. By embracing these unwelcome parts, the search for the self is nearly completed. The search for self- identity is important and cannot be ignored. A person suffers from mental, physical and social issues due to lack of attention to the self and his lack of ability to recognize and integrate the opposites of good and bad in the form of “persona”, “shadow” and the likes in him. Such a person suffers from psychological disorders. Psychoanalytic theory can be applied to study other characters of the novel.</p> Hunar Shah, Dr. Samina Rahat Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/746 Tue, 02 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Effect of Perceived Social Support on Self-Efficacy of Secondary School Teachers https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/747 <p>The significance of teachers cannot be overstated. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of teachers' perceived social support on their self-efficacy. The pivotal role of teachers in molding students is of utmost importance. They require support and skills to fulfill the demands of schools, students, principals, and the community. A survey study was conducted to find the effect of perceived social support of teachers on their self-efficacy about their teaching abilities. Participants were 475 male and 460 female secondary school teachers of public schools in Punjab, Pakistan. Reliability and validity were ensured through the pilot study and experts' views. Results showed that perceived social support has a positive and significant relationship with teachers' self-efficacy. Social support significantly increased the self-efficacy of teachers. Perceived social support explained 22.8% of teachers' self-efficacy change. Moreover, non-school sources explained 11.3% of the variance in self-efficacy, and school sources explained 8.7% of the variance in self-efficacy. It is recommended that support from family and school may be increased to enhance the teaching abilities of teachers.</p> Dr. Afshan Naseem, Dr. Samra Saeed, Dr. Gulnaz Akbar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/747 Tue, 02 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Effect of Bilingualism on Intelligence and Academic Achievement of EFL Learners https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/748 <p>This study aims to explore the effect of bilingualism on the academic performance and intelligence of students. As the global landscape becomes increasingly interconnected, bilingualism is gaining recognition for its potential cognitive benefits. This study focuses on the cognitive and academic outcomes of individuals immersed in a bilingual learning environment. The participants in this study are instructors in the English department at the National University of Modern Languages (NUML), Hyderabad, Sindh and students taking English as a Foreign Language (EFL) courses. The study examines whether bilingualism improves academic performance and cognitive skills in students. The research employs a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative assessments of intelligence and academic achievement with qualitative insights gathered through interviews and surveys. The results indicate that bilingualism affects intelligence and academic success in both favourable and complicated ways. This study recommends that there is need to revisit syllabus to create connection between intelligence, academic achievement and bilingualism.</p> Shahnaz Jumani, Dr. Saira Maqbool, Azeem Alphonce Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/748 Thu, 04 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 An Investigation of Pakistani English Speakers’ Perception about the relationship between Accent and Identity in English as a Lingua Franca Communication https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/750 <p>The aim of this qualitative inquiry is to investigate the relationship between accent and identity in English as lingua franca (ELF) communication from the perspective of second language (L2) speakers/ learners of English. Learners’ view point and overall orientation towards the learning process impacts the learners’ overall performance. Being a qualitative inquiry this research could not cover a large number of learners in its span. Ten English Students/ learners’ data about ELF communication experience was collected by semi- structured interviews at Karachi, Pakistan. The figures revealed a mix perception about the choice of accent in the participants: approximately 55% of the participants went for their natural accent, while about 45% of the participants chose British or American accents. This research is a small contribution to the little investigated relationship of accent and identity in EFL communication. It is recommended by the researchers that there is a need of conducting some quantitative studies seeking learners’ perceptions about language learning, which would cover divers and a large number of learns.</p> Ikram Ullah, Abdul Wahid Aresar, Sana Ullah Rustamani Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/750 Fri, 05 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Primary School Teachers’ Knowledge of Assessment and their Achievement: An Experimental Study https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/751 <p>The study used one group pre-test and post-test experimental design to find out the effect of teachers’ Content Knowledge of assessment techniques on their performance on assessment related test at primary school level. The study sampled 140 primary school teachers grouped into 5 clusters in rural areas of a district in Punjab province. Assessment strategies related training module was developed and the second author conducted intervention of the study. The teachers took the pre-tests and post-tests on assessment related content knowledge. The paired samples t-test and descriptive statistics were employed to analyze the data. The study found that achievement scores of the teachers in post-test were better than pre-test in the area of assessment. The study revealed that there was significant difference in the achievement scores which demonstrated the effect of professional development training on the teachers’ knowledge about assessment techniques at primary school level. The study recommended to conduct the professional development trainings of primary school teachers on the regular basis to improve the content knowledge about assessment techniques in Pakistan.</p> Dr. Muhammad Irfan Malik, Dr. Muhammad Akram, Saira Zafar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/751 Fri, 05 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Identifying Demotivating Factors affecting ESL Learners in Faisalabad: A Critical Inquiry https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/753 <p>This research delves into the identification of demotivating factors that significantly impact English as a Second Language (ESL) learners in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Recognizing the importance of motivation in the language learning process, this study employs a critical inquiry approach to scrutinize the multifaceted elements that hinder the motivation of ESL learners in Faisalabad. Utilizing a mixed-methods research design, both qualitative and quantitative data are gathered through surveys, interviews, and classroom observations. The results show that there are many motivating factors that positively affect the learner’s attitude to learn English as a foreign language while de-motivation always discourage the students not only in intermediate level but also at all other educational levels such as school, college and university. By addressing these demotivating factors, educators can create a more conducive and supportive learning environment, fostering a positive attitude towards language acquisition among ESL learners in the region</p> Zakia Shehzadi, Dr. Iram Rubab, Rahat Bashir Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/753 Sat, 06 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Validating Directed Motivational Currents in the Acquisition of English as a Second Language https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/757 <p>The present research intends to study Directed Motivational Currents i.e. a novel psychological construct in the acquisition of English as second language (ESL) in the context of KP, Pakistan. DMC has recently been introduced in the field of applied linguistics specifically, in L2 motivation. The main aim of the present study is to identify the DMC cases in the population of KP, Pakistan. For this purpose, the researcher has adopted a quantitative method of research where the data has been collected and analysed quantitatively. In connection to the data collection process, the data has been collected from the ESL learners at universities, colleges and language institutes through questionnaire. The quantitative data collected though questionnaire has been analysed through SPSS. The major findings of the study revealed that true DMC cases exist in the KP, province of Pakistan. Moreover, DMC cases in KP, Pakistan can be found across various linguistic, cultural and regional backgrounds. Based on the major findings of the study it is recommend for the future researchers to conduct qualitative/mixed method studies in other provinces of Pakistan. In Pakistani context, English teachers would be introduced to this novel Directed Motivational Currents in order to enhance their teaching-learning processes.</p> Bilal Khan, Dr. Abdul Hamid Khan, Ayesha Khalid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/757 Mon, 08 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Impact of Recasts in Improving English Essay Writing Skills of Pakistani College-level EFL Learners https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/764 <p>The role of feedback is considered positive in improving English writing skills. The article aims to examine the impact of recasts on the essay-writing skills of Pakistani L2 learners and ascertain the perception of the learners towards using recast-based feedback on their essay writing skills. The study employed an experimental research design, with 50 college-level students divided into two groups: experimental (n = 25) and control (n = 25). For eight weeks, the experimental group received both traditional and recast-based linguistic feedback on their essay writing tasks, while the control group received just traditional input. Pre and post-tests were conducted before and after eight weeks' (24-hour) treatment to determine differences between the mean scores. A subset of participants was selected for semi-structured interviews to discuss their perceptions and experiences with the recast feedback. The outcomes indicated that the treatment group outperformed the control group and that the subjects of the study perceived recast-based feedback as a positive activity that enhances motivation, confidence, and autonomy. The study has pedagogical and academic implications.</p> Muhammad Zahid, Muhammad Umer, Muhammad Nadeem Anwar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/764 Fri, 12 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Comparative Study of Noun Inflections and Their Functions in English and Astori Dialect of Shina Language: A Morphological Analysis https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/765 <p>This study aims to highlight and explore the similarities and differences of the noun inflections and their functions in English language and in Astori dialect of Shina language. This research contributes significantly to readers' understanding of the morphology of Shina, and it is of interest to linguists, language educators, and policymakers working on the promotion and preservation of endangered languages in Pakistan. The study has carried out a morphological analysis so as to explore the similarities and differences of noun inflections and their functions in both the languages. For the said analysis, inflections of nouns have been taken into considerations as the stand point of the research work. Findings of the study revealed that Shina nouns are highly inflected as compared to English nouns. The noun inflections are not easy to handle in Shina because noun inflections in Shina (Astori dialect) have more than one function in a single context, but on the other hand, English nouns are easy to handle as they are not that much inflected, and nouns are inflected, in English, hardly to show possessive case in a context. Furthermore, the study found that proper nouns in English are inflected neither in subject position nor do they in object position, however, proper nouns are also inflected in Shina whether they are in subjective case or in objective case. This study targeted only the noun inflections and their functions, further research may be conducted on other aspects of Shina language like; inflections of verb, pronoun adjective, syntactic structures, tense and aspect etc in Shina language.</p> Altaf Hussain, Ghulam Abbas, Muhammad Bashir Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/765 Sat, 13 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Comparative analysis of poem "Hum Dekhenge" and "Ode to the West Wind" https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/766 <p>The research delves into a comparative analysis of two impactful poems: "Hum Dekhenge" by Faiz Ahmed Faiz and "Ode to the West Wind" by Percy Bysshe Shelley, framed within the theoretical backdrop of Karl Marx's conflict theory. This exploration unveils the profound themes embedded in these works, encompassing revolution, optimism, hope, and the nuanced social and political issues depicted by each poet in their respective creations. Conducting a meticulous textual analysis, the study culminates in a noteworthy revelation: despite the poets hailing from distinct cultures and employing different languages, their verses resonate with parallel revolutionary ideals. It is imperative to acknowledge the study's limitations, as it focuses solely on individual poems, paving the way for future research endeavors to enrich our understanding of these literary nuances."</p> Shujaa Hussain, Suhail Ahmed Solangi, Faizan Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/766 Sat, 13 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Non-Verbal Communication Through Visual Storytelling: UMBRELLA Animated Short Film https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/767 <p>Non-verbal communication has a pivotal role in the contemporary era. The trend towards non-verbal visual storytelling is burgeoning due to its diverse advantages. This study focuses on the nonverbal clues and expressions that enhance the storyline of animated films in visual form and make an emotional connection with the audience. Animation possesses the capacity to elucidate non-verbal communication more effectively. It holds paramount importance in enriching the emotional depth of movies or actions. It significantly contributes to overcoming language barriers by producing emotionally engaging films with non-verbal elements at both national and international scales. Describing non-verbal communication through animation enhances the value of both emotions and animated content. Researchers have employed a descriptive-qualitative approach, utilising content analysis, to delve into various facets of non-verbal communication. These encompass kinesics, haptics, proxemics, oculesics, and facial expressions. The outcome of this study reveals that the genuine source of emotions lies in non-verbal communication. The results also showed that this short film encapsulates a spectrum of emotions, ranging from grief to exuberance, from ennui to being immersed in reminiscence, embodying a comprehensive array of emotions. Employing content analysis in this study highlights the importance of facial expressions, gestures, postures, eye movements, behaviour, and characters' appearances. Understanding these methods to know about nonverbal communication is the understanding of the basic units of visual storytelling.</p> Iram Sagheer, Areeba Khalid, Saema Sarwer Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/767 Sat, 13 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Autobiographical Element in the Form of Nostalgia in Eliot’s Post-Migration Poetic Work: Four Quartets https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/768 <p>The study is conducted to explore the autobiographical element found in Eliot’s poetry in the form of nostalgia. The paper focuses on relevant verses of selected poems along with the biography of T.S. Eliot to examine the aspects of Nostalgia in his poetry. These aspects includes “Restorative nostalgia and Reflective" nostalgia. The aspects of nostalgia, that are to be studied in this academic contribution, have been adopted from Boym, Svetlana (2001) “The Future of Nostalgia”, as a theory for the study. Firstly the selected poems are analysed, through contextual frame of data analysis, and then the aspects of nostalgia are deducted. The detailed study of the sample enable the researcher to conclude that almost all the features of restorative and reflective nostalgia are present in his poetry in different moods, and the poet keeps on shifting from restorative to reflective and vice versa.</p> Ameena Tareen, Dr. Fouzia Rehman Khan, Dr. Shazia Ayyaz Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/768 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Semantic Modifications in Selected English Words borrowed in Majhi Dialect of Punjabi https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/769 <p>The study aims to explicate any changes that take place when the English borrowed in words in the Majhi dialect of Punjabi are used by the native speakers of the dialect. Also, the study aims to elucidate the types of changes that take place during the process of borrowing in the Majhi Dialect of Punjabi. This study tis significant to find the types of semantic changes which take place during the borrowing of English words used by the native speakers of the Majhi dialect of Punjabi there by affecting the sematic range of the words of donor language. The research is both qualitative and quantitative. The data for this research has been collected through interviews of the 8 monolingual native speakers with equal number of both male and female participants with primary education. Bloomfield’s framework of borrowing is applied in order to observe certain types of semantic changes. The results of study show that different types of changes take place during the borrowing process. Borrowing facilitates the native speakers at the cost of the donor language.</p> Jamshaid Anjum, Dr. Saqlain Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/769 Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Power of an ‘Absolutely Not’ by the Pakistani PM Imran Khan: A Critical Discourse Analysis https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/771 <p>People use language for different social practices, for different purposes and in different contexts. Discourse analysis is a vast and deep field of study which examines these social practices to understand the hidden meanings behind the text. The objective of this paper was to analyze a simple but very strong and amazing phrase ‘absolutely not’ by the Pakistani PM in a particular context. The PM used this phrase during an interview with Jonathan Swan on HBO on Saturday, June 19, 2021 when he was asked a question about giving military bases to the US in Pakistan for targeted operations in Afghanistan. The worldwide print and electronic media discussed and interpreted this amazing phrase ‘absolutely not’ focusing on the past Pak-US relationships and its impacts on future politics in the region, but this article tried to clarify and highlight some precise meanings attached to this amazing term. This ‘absolutely not’ also takes on symbolic meanings. It shows the PM’s moral standpoint against anti-peace-keeping policies in the region, shows its power and impact on the present and future policies to establish regional peace, and it shows the PM’s love for peace in the region and also the possible consequences as stated in the research questions. Fairclough’s model in CDA has been used to analyze this amazing ‘absolutely not’ and contribute to existing knowledge by filling a research gap. The present economic and political ground realities are a true picture of this critical analysis, and more research of this ‘absolutely not’ should be conducted in the future according to the upcoming ground realities in the region.</p> Muhammad Amjad, Muhammad Ahmad, Attiya Bano Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/771 Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Spatial Manipulation in Karachi: A Postmodern Marxist Study of Hamid’s The Prisoner https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/772 <p>Examining Omar Shahid Hamid’s The Prisoner through Postmodern Marxist lens, this research analyzes how Karachi’s city space is being victimized by globalization and capitalism and highlights different ways of Karachiites’ spatial manipulation. Karachi as a metropolitan city, went through fragmentation and discontinuity due to globalization and is being affected by polycentric and kaleidoscopic socio-spatial structure. Postmodernists raise questions upon the idea of utopian city space and about the role of architecture and geography in a person’s life. Based upon arguments by Henri Lefebvre and Edward William Soja, this research substantiates how in The Prisoner, characters are manipulated by their social space and also foregrounds their resistance against this spatial cleansing. The research establishes how the individuality of a person is being victimized by capitalism which ultimately leads to spatial manipulation. Hamid also features how social institutions are becoming major tool for spatial cleansing and causes spatial injustice in a person’s life which is totally a backwash of pre-existing human norms and values.</p> Syeda Hibba Zainab Zaidi, Dr. Ali Usman Saleem, Ferva Aslam Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/772 Sat, 20 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Addressing Language Anxiety in ESL Students: Identifying the Root Causes and Useful Coping Strategies https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/773 <p>This study aims to investigate the ways language anxiety occurs in ESL students, focusing on language abilities, duties, and classroom circumstances that elicit increased nervousness levels, and examines the effects of social and cultural factors. Language anxiety affects academic performance, motivation, and self-confidence in people learning English as a second language (ESL). The causes of language anxiety and effective coping strategies are poorly understood, despite the disorder's severe consequences. This research uses a qualitative research methodology to explore the causes, effects, and workable solutions for reducing language anxiety in ESL students. The findings reveal that students' self-perception, language proficiency teacher interactions, and learning environments are key contributors to language anxiety influencing emotional, mental, behavioral, and physical well-being. In addition to behavioral emotional cognitive and social strategies for coping students also use other ways to cope. The study promotes methods for reducing language anxiety, including raising self-efficacy giving constructive criticism, encouraging collaborative learning settings, and creating a pleasant learning environment. The research adds significant insights to our understanding of language anxiety by providing a thorough examination of this occurrence from the viewpoint of the students. Curriculum designers, legislators, and ESL teachers are all affected.</p> Amna Sana, Dr. Aqsa Atta Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/773 Sun, 21 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Ideological Construction of Gender Representation in The Pearl That Broke: A Critical Discourse Analysis https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/774 <p>The purpose of this study is to examine and analyse the Ideological construction of gender representation in Nadia Hashmi’s The Pearl That Broke Its Shell from the perspective of Critical discourse analysis. The study has been conducted in a socially constructed Bacha Posh tradition which has been practiced in Afghanistan for several generations. To unpack gender representation and ideological construction of gender in the discourse structures, the researcher has used M.M Lazar’s FCDA praxis. Lazar's theoretical and methodological considerations offer a systematic inquiry to the researcher to dig out the ideological construction and unequal representation of gender. The current study revealed that gender is a social and cultural phenomenon and central female characters in the discourse structures are represented unequally, socially, culturally politically and economically through linguistic structures. Further studies are required to investigate the effect of polygamy and early marriages on the lives of girls in Afghan society.</p> Dr. Muhammad Imran, Sahrish, Mubasher Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/774 Fri, 26 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 An Analysis of Inclusive Education: A Study on the Relationship between Teachers and Students https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/777 <p>Inclusive education aims to provide all students with access to a high-quality education. It promotes equal opportunities and ensures that every student, regardless of their abilities or disabilities. Inclusive education strives to break down barriers and provide equitable opportunity for everyone, regardless of background or circumstance. The goal of this study is to look at the impact of inclusive education on academic success and social inclusion. It involves making sure that teaching, curriculum, classrooms, play areas, and transportation are all accessible. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes and values regarding IE among students and teachers in Sindh, Pakistan. A questionnaire was designed for data collection, which included items on socio-demographic characteristics and measuring instruments. An online survey was conducted in a higher education institute where both teachers and students were offered to participate anonymously. A total of 107 teachers and 91 students participated in the survey. The survey results indicated that both teachers and students.</p> Dr. Rizwana Muneer, Noman Fazal, Wakeel Ahmed Otho Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/777 Sat, 27 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Effect of Self-Motivation on Academic Performance of Students of Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Bagh https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/778 <p>This study was conducted to examine the effects of self-motivation on academic achievements of the students. The research population encompassed undergraduate students enrolled in various social sciences departments at Women University of AJ&amp;K Bagh. Using a simple random sampling technique, a representative sample of 326 students was selected for the study. To assess the level of self-motivation, respondents completed a standardized questionnaire developed. Data was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The results of the study revealed a significant effect of self-motivation on academic performance of university students. These results contribute significantly to the existing body of knowledge and carry implications for educational institutions. The study emphasizes the importance of addressing and nurturing self-motivation to enhance the academic performance of students. By shedding light on the interplay between self-motivation and academic outcomes, this research adds to the scholarly discourse and supports educational institutions in devising strategies to encourage students' self-motivation and, consequently, their academic achievements.</p> Sadia Khan, Darakhshan Siraj, Mehvish Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/778 Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Use of Metaphors to Frame Stories in Advertisements for the Promotion of Consumerism https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/780 <p>The prospects of this research study promise to inspect the linguistic dimensions of the advertisements to probe into the facets of strategic metaphorical language to unveil the tapestry of ingenious stories, evolved by manufacturers to promote consumerist ideology. The selection of twelve divertissements is based on the use of metaphors. Conceptual theory of metaphor (Lakoff and Johnson) and Stibbe’s Model of Eco linguistic analysis directed the method of this research. The analysis incurred that the novelty in the stories, through the persuasive use of impressive metaphors, developed by manufacturing companies are succinctly insinuated, as the customers acknowledge them mundane but the convincible stories inculcate certain discernments in the readers’ minds and effectively tame the priority choices of consumers to purchase it anyways. Study suggested that if the companies will associate the products with constructive ecological dimensions, it can make the products right choice for the customers and increase their value.</p> Iqra Jabeen, Dr. Fauzia Janjua Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/780 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Unveiling Corporeal Feminism: Deconstructing Female Villain Archetypes in Maleficent https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/782 <p>The objective of this study is to critically analyze the 2014 film Maleficent from a corporeal feminist perspective, examining the interconnectedness of women's bodies, sexuality, and their portrayal as monsters. The research aims to unravel the construction of monstrous femininity monstrosity in Maleficent (2014), exploring its correlation with the main character, Maleficent who is branded as both hero and villain. It then challenges the binary categorization of good and evil by portraying Maleficent as Aurora's godmother. Even in her role as a mother and nurturer, Maleficent defies traditional patriarchal depictions of motherhood. The methodology involves a comprehensive analysis of the film, utilizing a corporeal feminist perspective. The researcher examines scenes and themes related to women's bodies, sexuality, and the juxtaposition of monstrosity and motherhood. A critical approach is employed to deconstruct traditional gender roles and portrayals within the narrative. Lastly, the paper discusses how presenting Maleficent as both a monster and a mother becomes an agentic representation, fostering empowerment and autonomy. Such research further paves way for analyses of cinematic representations consider alternative perspectives, challenging established gender norms.</p> Anka Shahid, Dr. Amal Sayyid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/782 Sun, 11 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Exploring Postmodern Elements in Jorge Luis Borges’ Short Story “The Other Death“ https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/783 <p>The study explores Postmodernism elements in the short story “The Other Death” by one of the renowned postmodern authors Jorge Luis Borges. The researchers have identified the elements of postmodernism in the story to substantiate the claim that the story is a postmodern text. The study is exploratory in nature and involves the use of the qualitative approach. Moreover, the study has been carried out and analyzed under the lens of Postmodernism. For this purpose, the study uses content analysis of the Jorge Luis Borges short story “the Other Death. For the current study, the researchers have invoked the theory of postmodern fiction mentioned in The Cambridge Introduction to Postmodern Fiction by Bran Nicol. This research study has used the interpretative method to analyze the text of "The Other Death". Content analysis has been widely used through the lens of postmodernism of literary texts. The findings of the study have shown that the story carries many postmodern elements but the major elements explored by researchers are: Inter-textuality, Metafiction, and Magical Realism. The short story is intertwined with diverse rich elements to represent diverse meaning for the readers. The text carries literary allusions and the commendatory of the author as well along with the elements of magical realism that makes it a well-knit text for postmodern analysis.</p> Muhammad Ibrahim Khokhar, Azharuddin Noonari, Barkat Ali Abro Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/783 Sun, 11 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Learning Experiences and Practices through Artificial Intelligence as Adoptive Academia for Teachers and Students of Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/784 <p>The study investigates the learning experiences and practices of teachers and students in higher education institutions in Pakistan through Artificial Intelligence (AI). Employing qualitative research method, the study utilizes narrative and phenomenological designs to collect study data from various sources, including interviews and documents. Initial data collection involves 20 participants through semi-structured interviews, while 50 documents such as reports, AI blogs, and research articles, reports are later analyzed. The findings suggest that artificial Intelligence AI significantly transforms the educational landscape, making it more accessible, efficient, and accurate. It influences various disciplines and industries, including business, engineering, and manufacturing. AI in Education (AIED) offers valuable resources, problem-solving tools, and automated grading systems. It streamlines instructional delivery, monitoring, assessment, and diagnostic processes, enhancing the overall educational experience for both teachers and students in higher education institutions. AI facilitates automatic operations, enabling virtual access to learning activities and practices, thereby revolutionizing traditional teaching methods.</p> Rafiq Ahmed, Irfan Ali Mallah, Dr. Ajaz Shaheen Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/784 Sun, 11 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Enhancing Teacher Performance in E-Learning: Addressing Barriers and Promoting Sustainable Education in Public Universities of Pakistan https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/785 <p>This study investigates the barriers affecting teacher performance in e-learning public sector universities, aiming to propose solutions aligned with Sustainable Development Goal 2030. The global impact of COVID-19 necessitated technological interventions to facilitate education and development, with e-learning emerging as a crucial strategy. However, challenges persist, especially in Pakistan's public-sector universities. Using qualitative methods, nine participants were interviewed to uncover different internal (motivation, teaching methods, assessment) and external (technical assistance, financial crises) barriers face by teaching faculty. Recommendations include investing in technical infrastructure, collaborating with policymakers and developers, and prioritizing technology integration at the different level according to need of modern globe. These suggestions aim to promote inclusive and quality education, leveraging technology for improved outcomes. By addressing these barriers, universities can contribute to universal access to education and empower learners in the digital age. Strategic investments and collaborative efforts are vital to advancing educational equity and lifelong learning.</p> Shabana Abdul Jabbar Phulpoto, Lubna Oad, Muhammad Imran Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/785 Sun, 11 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Factors Pushing the People of Tribal Areas for Migration in The Shadow of The Crescent Moon by Fatima Bhutto https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/789 <p>This research explores the complex issue of forced migration in tribal areas, particularly focusing on the impact of the war on terror on these communities. The Federally Administrated Tribal areas (FATA) in Pakistan have historically been conflicted region. <em>&nbsp;The Shadow of the Crescent Moon </em>by Fatima Bhutto portrays the intricate web of socio-political, economic, and psychological factors that drive the tribal populations towards migration. Push Factors in Everett Lee’s <em>A Theory of Migration</em> (1966) provides an insight to understand the factors compelling individuals and families to leave their ancestral homes and seek refuge elsewhere. This research provides a comprehensive overview of the historical context and the evolution of the war on terror in tribal areas. It examines the push factors such as military operations, displacement, and economic hardship that force these communities to abandon their homes. The method of Textual Analysis has been employed to critically evaluate the text to explore Everett Lee’s perception of push factors. The research explored that the factors effecting economic and political stability, terrorism and hope for better future pushed people to migration.</p> Abu Bakar Ahmed, Mahrosh, Muqaddas-un-Nisa Tariq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/789 Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Validity Argument for Professional Language Assessment: Evaluating ‘PPSC Test for Recruitment to the Post of Lecturer English’ https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/788 <p>The current research aims to evaluate the validity of the Recruitment Test for Lecturer English (RTLE) conducted by the Punjab Public Service Commission (PPSC). The test scores are used to allocate subject experts to teach the English language at degree colleges in Punjab. The inclusion of inappropriate and insufficient content leads to invalid test development and unfair decisions. The researcher follows a mixed-method approach focusing on quantitative data analysis of the five PPSC-RLTEs held between 2013 and 2022. The theories of language test validity informed the validity argument and guided the researcher to devise a tailored analytical framework. The quantitative data analysis and comparison of five tests reveal that it under-represents certain areas of language and exhibits inter-test and intra-test inconsistency. The findings suggest that the test is not entirely accurate for assessing candidates’ language proficiency and predicting their language ability. The study recommends further research to investigate the reliability of the same test and recruitment tests for other subjects.</p> Memona Mujahid, Dr. Nighat Shakur Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/788 Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Cognitive and Social Factors Influencing L2 Reading Motivation among ESL Students of Pakistan: A Case Study https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/790 <p>Reading is a cognitive process which occurs during the interaction with written materials. But reading motivation comes into existence in the result of combination of cognitive and social factors. Reading becomes is a means of language achievement, communication, and of sharing facts and concepts. Therefore, using a process model of L2 motivation (Dornyei &amp; Otto, 1998), this qualitative case study has been conducted among six (6) intermediate students of Govt. Graduate College, Mianwali. The researcher has used semi structured interviews and observation to collect the data. The data have been analyzed manually and systematically thematically by coding and decoding. Findings show although the students are cognitively and socially motivated to read in L2 (English) yet due to the influence of instrumental social factors, they are more motivated to read in English. However, the students have been found more motivated under the influence of getting success, getting higher education and getting jobs in the country and abroad. The study recommends that due to inconsistency in educational and linguistics policies, students are confused. Therefore, study recommends consistency in educational as well as in linguistics policies of the country, Pakistan.</p> Tahir Jahan Khan, Muhammad Shakoor Aamir, Zafar Maqbool Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/790 Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Linguistic Landscape Analysis of Shop Sings: A Case Study https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/792 <p>The present study is conducted in Lahore, a metropolitan city in Pakistan, to discover the language the shop owners use to write the shop signs of their shops. The researchers used an observation sheet and interview to collect data and used analytic induction by Miles, Huberman, and Saldana (2014) to analyze the data. The researchers took photos of the shops and interviewed twenty shopkeepers to know the reasons for using English and Urdu. The findings revealed that the overwhelming reason for using the English language was to be unique, followed by the reason that it is a common trend to write shop signs in English. A different finding that did not match the findings of previous studies was the response of the computer shop owners. They said that they use English first because of the customers. They prefer English names because they do not know the translation of English words related to computers.</p> Nazir Ahmed, Muhammad Zahid, Muhammad Nadeem Anwar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/792 Wed, 14 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Measuring the Impact of Logical Metafunction on Syntactic Complexity: An Experimental Study of Pakistani ESL Learners at Secondary Level https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/793 <p>This study set out to investigate the impact of logical metafunction on syntactic complexity, and in doing so, it also measured the extent to which it impacted syntactic complexity. This study applied a one-group pre-test post-test experimental research design on 30 participants across a span of 40 sessions. To measure syntactic complexity, L2SCA accessed through TAASSC was used. A paired-sample t-test was employed in samples to make comparison of syntactic complexity deduced from the 14 indices. Furthermore, the study measured the Cohen's d values to discern the practical implication within the mean differences observed. A substantial enhancement in all indices of syntactic complexity was noted, except for one index (CP/C) which had a moderate effect. The study proved that this theory can be used by ESL educators and learners to make their writings logically connected and complex, resulting in marked enhancement of academic writing skills and language proficiency.</p> Muhammad Abrar, Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Qasim Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/793 Sat, 17 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Decoding Meaning through Language Choices: A Systemic Functional Analysis of Faiz Ahmad Faiz’s Poem “Captivity” https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/795 <p>This paper analyzes the poetic meaning in a literary text by scrutinizing it through the three metafunctions of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL). The data selected for this study from Faiz Ahmad Faiz's poem ‘Captivity’ (متاع لوح و قلم چھن گئی تو کیا غم ہے ) translated into English by Daud Kamal (1984). The main objective of this study is to identify the functional elements within the “Captivity” poem. A lexico-grammatical method known as "transitivity" was used to explore the applicability of the Systemic Functional Grammar promoted by famous linguist M.A. K. Halliday. The theory establishes the view of the functionality of linguistic phenomena in the pieces of literature. The poem's analysis involved three primary functional methods within the theory: Ideational, Interpersonal, and Textual analysis. In the first category, Transitivity includes the material process, which illustrates the happening and doing process. The second interpersonal element, maintaining social relations, indicates the roles of the participants in communication. Finally, the Textual meaning makes a text into a text, such as thematic structure, information structure, and cohesion. This study indicated that elements of the material process have been found eight times in this poem compared to other metafunctions of language. The result showed that the verbs “does matter, been snatched, have dipped, does matter, have been selected, have put” belong to the material process, goals and actors are central participants of the material process and circumstance of the material process are categorized into place and location elements. This study revealed that employing SFL to analyze literary texts has introduced new perspectives to researchers and suggested potential avenues for future studies in literary works.</p> Dr. Fakhar Hussain Malik, Khizar Abbas, Dr. Adnan Tahir Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/795 Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Exploring the Features of Pakistani English Creative Writing: An In-depth Study of Language use, Reader Engagement, Voice, Quality, Originality and universality in the Works of Akhtar, Tahir, and Sidhwa https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/796 <p>This research explores the distinctive features of Pakistani creative writing and its important role in developing creativity, promoting critical thinking, crafting uniqueness, shaping and developing the structure of Pakistani English (PakE). PakE has evolved into a unique linguistic form by blending English with indigenous vocabulary, idioms, themes, and linguistic features. Through creative writing Pakistani writers are promoting their rich cultural heritage and enriching the language, making it a vibrant medium for literary and linguistic expressions. This study explores features of Pakistani creative writing through a qualitative analysis of select texts—poems by Rizwan Akhtar, short stories by M. Athar Tahir, and Bapsi Sidhwa's novel “The Bride”—this research applies a theoretical framework for assessing creativity in writing. The study uncovers the use of language, reader engagement, distinctiveness, voice, originality, and universality among other aspects. The findings reveal a dynamic interplay of language techniques, emotive engagement, and thematic depth across the selected works, presents the uniqueness and versatility of PakE in capturing the essence of Pakistani culture and heritage. Pakistani English creative writing reflects postcolonial identity, linguistic creativity, and cultural diversity. It affirms the contribution of creative writing in shaping the structure and development of Pakistani English.</p> Amna Shahid, Dr. Humaira Irfan, Dr. Ahsan Bashir Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/796 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Liminality and Cultural Identity in Gurnah’s Gravel Heart https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/797 <p>This article explores Gurnah’s Gravel Heart from Bhabhian perspectives of liminality and cultural identity through immigrant experiences of the protagonist Salim who faces identity crisis, relational positioning and racial prejudice. Gurnah is of the view that immigrants are always in a liminal space, experiencing ‘in-between-ness’ and as they try to assimilate with the new culture, identity crises emerge. In this process of assimilation, immigrants feel like they are divided into two parts. They have traits of this new culture now but cannot overlook the norms and culture of their native lands as well. They find themselves at liminal space where no matter how hard they try to save their culture, it still gets hybrid and new elements of the host culture, they interact with, continue to become a part of their lives, which in turn, reshape their identity.</p> Hifza Wasiq, Saddaf Rashid, Tasawar Abbas Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.plhr.org.pk/journal/article/view/797 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500