Impact of Consistency of Input on Acquisition of English Front Vowels: An Acoustic Study


  • Dr. Shazia Kousar Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Narowal, Narowal, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Hafiz Ahmad Bilal Associate Professor, Department of English, Higher Education Department, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Dr. Faqir Muhammad Rana Lecturer, Department of English, University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Salalah, Sultanate of Oman



2nd Language Acquisition, Consistent Exposure, Front Vowels


The study observes the impact of consistency of input on the acquisition of English front vowels /ɪ/, /ɪ: /, /e/, /æ/ concerning jaw opening (correlated with F1), tongue fronting (correlated with F2) and duration of vowels. This is a quasi-experimental study that has ‘pre-test-post-test control group’ framework. Three intact class groups, at middle level from a public girls school, were assigned to experimental groups and control group. Experimental group A was consistently exposed to English RP based audios/videos for sixty consecutive days. Experimental group B was inconsistently exposed to input in alternative days. Control group C was not given treatment of any kind. The target front vowels were embedded into / hvd / syllables in the carrier phrase ‘say --- please’ as a stimuli. Data comprising of thirty six hundred tokens of English front vowels were analyzed using FormantPro (Xu, 2013) software. The results show that front vowels of group A, particularly vowel sound /æ/, /ɪ:/ are considerably affected by consistent exposure to RP vowels contrary to the front vowels of group B and group C. This study recommends consistent exposure of input for effective acquisition of English phonology.





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How to Cite

Kousar, S., Bilal, H. A., & Rana, F. M. (2022). Impact of Consistency of Input on Acquisition of English Front Vowels: An Acoustic Study. Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review, 6(4), 168–177.