Apology Strategies in Hindko: An Explanatory Intercultural Research


  • Shahid Hussain Mir Lecturer, Department of English, University of Kotli, Kotli AJK, Pakistan
  • Saman Waheed Lecturer, Department of English, JVC, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir English department, AJ&K, Pakistan
  • Dr. Ameer Sultan Assistant Professor, Department of English International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan




Apology Strategies, Cultural, Hindko, Inter and Cross-Cultural, Pragmatics Social, Turkish


Intercultural and cross-cultural studies play a significant role in understanding the influence of culture on communication, especially pragmatic communication in any language. The current study aims to explore the phenomenon of apology strategies used by Hindko speakers enrolled at the University of Kotli and the University of AJK Muzaffarabad. The data were collected through a Discourse Completion Test from 10 speakers of Hindko enrolled in various departments at the University of Kotli and UAJK Muzaffarabad. The Turkish language data were adopted as a reference from a research study conducted by Cetinavei. The Hindko data were analyzed using the theoretical framework presented by Blum-Kulka and others The findings of the research show that Hindko speakers show variation in using apology strategies. Hindko speakers use more direct explanation and denial strategies, whereas Turkish speakers use indirect responsibility and explanation strategies. Moreover, the analysis also shows that Hindko speakers use forgiveness strategies more frequently than other strategies like intensifying or taking responsibility.





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How to Cite

Mir, S. H., Waheed, S., & Sultan, A. (2023). Apology Strategies in Hindko: An Explanatory Intercultural Research. Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review, 7(2), 355–369. https://doi.org/10.47205/plhr.2023(7-II)31