An Overview of the Information Processing Approach and its Application to Memory, Language, and Working Memory


  • Dr. Shahid Hussain Shahid Associate Professor, Department of English, Lahore Leads University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English Language & Literature, Institute of Linguistics & Humanities, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
  • Dr. Muhammad Ishtiaq Lecturer, Department of English, Unaizah Science and Arts College, Al-Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia



Cognitive Neuroscience, Information Processing Approach, Working Memory


This article reviews the Information Processing Approach, examining its application to memory, language, and working memory. The Information Processing Approach, a reaction to behaviorism, proposes that the mind handles information in stages. The study delves into the primary ideas of bottom-up and top-down processing, which elucidate how sensory input is transformed into more advanced cognitive processes. This study conducted a thorough analysis of relevant literature on the Information Processing Approach, memory, language, and Working Memory, including recent developments in cognitive neuroscience. It was identified that the Information Processing Approach is useful for comprehending how the mind processes information. The connection between memory and language is crucial, with language processing being essential for memory. Working Memory components and constraints, such as age, distraction, and cognitive load, were identified in the study. Further research is required to refine the Information Processing Approach, explore its application to other cognitive processes, and investigate its practical implications for cognitive functioning, learning, and education.





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How to Cite

Shahid, S. H., Khan, M. A., & Ishtiaq, M. (2022). An Overview of the Information Processing Approach and its Application to Memory, Language, and Working Memory. Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review, 6(3), 615–628.

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